Chapter 35 – Reptiles and Birds - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

chapter 35 reptiles and birds n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 35 – Reptiles and Birds PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 35 – Reptiles and Birds

play fullscreen
1 / 52
Chapter 35 – Reptiles and Birds
144 Views
Download Presentation
jory
Download Presentation

Chapter 35 – Reptiles and Birds

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 35 – Reptiles and Birds High School Biology Class

  2. To recap thus far… • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata (all have a notochord) • Subphylum: Vertebrata (all have a backbone)

  3. Reptile Characteristics: • Have strong, bony skeletons & toes with claws. • Ectothermic metabolism - absorb heat from their surroundings.

  4. Reptile Characteristics: • Also have very dry, scaly skin, appears almost watertight. • Perform respiration through well-defined and developed lungs.

  5. Reptile Characteristics: • The heart is partially divided into upper and lower ventricles (as well as left and right atriums).

  6. Reptile Characteristics: • Undergo internal fertilization: • Oviparous - young hatch from eggs. • Ovoviviparous - female retains the eggs within the body until right before hatching or the eggs hatch within her body.

  7. Order Squamata: (Snake & Lizard) • Traits of the Squamata: • The lower jaw is only loosely connected to the skull. • This allows the mouth to open very wide (anacondas can prey upon jaguars.)

  8. Order Squamata: (Snake & Lizard) 1. Lizards - some can break off their tail to trick predators and then regenerate it. • Most are carnivores, few are herbivores. • Range in size from 30 cm to 3 m. • Examples: komodo dragon, iguana, gecko, chameleon, anole, horned lizard

  9. Order Squamata: (Snake & Lizard) 2. Snakes – all of them lack moveable eyelids and external ears. • Share a common ancestor with legless lizards. • Molt (shed outer layer of skin) periodically. • Very flexible jaw with five points of movement.

  10. Order Squamata: (Snake & Lizard) • Constrictor examples: (suffocate their prey and swallow it whole) • anaconda, boa, python

  11. Order Squamata: (Snake & Lizard) • Venomous examples: (inject poison through hollowed out teeth) • cobra, krait, coral, sea snakes, adder, viper, rattlesnake, water moccasin, copperhead

  12. Order Chelonia: (Turtle & Tortoise) • Traits of the Chelonia: • Carapace - dorsal (top) of shell. • Plastron - ventral (bottom) of shell.

  13. Order Chelonia: (Turtle & Tortoise) 1. Turtles – generally live in water. • Have a streamlined shell (a shape that is useful for swimming). • Most herbivores except the snapping turtle. • Examples: sea turtle, box turtle, painted turtle, loggerhead, leatherback

  14. Order Chelonia: (Turtle & Tortoise) 2. Tortoises – generally live on land. • Have a dome shaped shell. • Lack teeth (like turtles) but have sharp jaws. • Examples: desert tortoise, giant tortoise, gopher tortoise, western swamp tortoise

  15. Order Crocodilia: (Caiman, Crocodile, & Alligator) • Traits of the Crocodilia: • Strong necks and enormous mouths. • Most closely related to the dinosaurs. • Care for young after the egg hatches.

  16. Order Crocodilia: (Caiman, Crocodile, & Alligator) 1. Crocodiles – have a narrow V-shaped snout, and their upper and lower jaws are evenly matched together.

  17. Order Crocodilia: (Caiman, Crocodile, & Alligator) 2. Alligators – have a broad U-shaped snout, and their upper jaw overlaps the lower jaw.

  18. Order Rhynchocephalia: (Tuatara) • Traits of the Rhynchocephalia: • Called “living fossils” because they have survived unchanged for 150 million years. • There are two species that are found only in the New Zealand. • Active at low temperatures and eat insects.

  19. To recap thus far… • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata (all have a notochord) • Subphylum: Vertebrata (all have a backbone)

  20. Bird (Aves) Characteristics: • Their forelimbs are modified into wings. • Have bodies covered with feathers. • Possess lightweight bones.

  21. Bird (Aves) Characteristics: • Endothermic metabolism - internal heating system. • Super-efficient respiratory system. • Heart completely divided (left & right) atria as well as (upper & lower) ventricles.

  22. Bird (Aves) Characteristics: • Many different adaptations appear in birds such as changes to their beaks and feet.

  23. Bird (Aves) Characteristics: • Many different adaptations appear in birds such as changes to their beaks and feet.

  24. Types of Birds (Aves): • Examples: a) Songbirds b) Hummingbird c) Woodpecker d) Birds of prey (hawk, eagle) e) Duck

  25. Chapter 36 - Mammals High School Biology Class

  26. To recap thus far… • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata (all have a notochord) • Subphylum: Vertebrata (all have a backbone)

  27. Mammalian Characteristics: • Hair for insulation, camouflage, defense or sensory functions. • Diverse and specialized teeth such as the: incisors, canines, premolars & molars.

  28. Mammalian Characteristics: • Have endothermic metabolism (like in birds) to keep heated. • Mammary glands - milk for young. (until they are weaned off.) • Unborn young are usually nourished by a placenta.

  29. Today’s Mammals • Mammals have the most diverse body forms, shapes, traits, and characteristics of all the vertebrate animals. • One way to separate mammals into groups is to compare how they reproduce.

  30. Mammal Reproduction 1) Order Monotremata: (Monotremes) • Most primitive of all the mammals. • Reproduce by laying eggs. • All live in Australia or New Guinea. • Do not have true teeth. • Examples: • Duckbill platypus • Echidna (spiny anteater)

  31. Mammal Reproduction 2) Order Marsupialia: (Marsupials) • Young are born only partially developed. • Continue development in pouches. • All are found around Australia. • Examples: • Kangaroo, Wombat, Wallaroo, Koala, Opossum

  32. Mammal Reproduction 3) Placental Mammals (19 Orders) • Young are more completely developed. • Nourishment for embryo is provided by a placenta. • Gestation period – the period of time between fertilization and birth. • Most domestic animals are placental mammals that have been kept and bred by people for special purposes.

  33. 1) Order Rodentia • Traits: • Specialized teeth for gnawing. • Smart, herbivore, small size, fast reproduction. • Examples: mouse, beaver, rat

  34. 2) Order Chiroptera • Traits: • Only mammals capable of flight. • Night-active, carnivore, use echolocation, caves. • Example: bat

  35. 3) Order Insectivora • Traits: • Eat mainly insects (some fruits, birds, reptiles). • Have enormous appetite (eat twice their weight). • Example: shrew

  36. 4) Order Carnivora • Traits: • Usually divided into cat family or dog family. • Smart, carnivore, good senses & great hunters. • Examples: tiger, lion, wolf, fox, raccoon, bear, panda

  37. 5) Order Pinnipedia • Traits: • All four limbs modified as flippers for swimming. • Marine habitat, carnivore, mate on land, blubber. • Example: walrus

  38. 6) Order Primate • Traits: • Flexible, grasping hands and depth perception. • Curious, intelligent, many with tails for balance. • Examples: apes, monkeys, lemurs, humans

  39. 7) Order Artiodactyla • Traits: • Called ungulates because they have hoofs. • Even number of toes, herbivore, chew cud. • Examples: pig, hippopotamus, camel, deer, goat

  40. 8) Order Perissodactyla • Traits: • Called ungulates because they have hoofs. • Odd number of toes, herbivore, no cud. • Examples: horse, zebra, tapir, rhinoceros

  41. 9) Order Cetacea • Traits: • Divided into predators and filter-feeders. • Smart, streamlined body, no hind limb, broad tail. • Examples: whale, dolphin, porpoise

  42. 10) Order Lagomorpha • Traits: • Have long continuously growing teeth. • Long hind leg for hopping, herbivore, nests vary. • Examples: rabbit, hare

  43. 11) Order Sirenia • Traits: • Similar to whale with flippers and no hind limbs. • Flattened tail, herbivore, live in tropical habitat. • Examples: dugong, manatee “sea cow”

  44. 12) Order Proboscidea • Traits: • Largest land animals alive today. • Trunk, elongated nose, herbivore, live in a herd. • Examples: African elephant, Indian elephant

  45. 13) Order Edentata • Traits: • Toothless or poorly developed teeth. • Found only in the western hemisphere. • Examples: anteater, armadillo

  46. 14) Order Macroscelidea • Traits: • Ground-dwelling insect eaters. • Flexible snout, and hop about like kangaroos. • Example: elephant shrew

  47. 15) Order Scandentia • Traits: • Live in ground despite their name. • Small, omnivore, long snout, sharp teeth. • Example: tree shrew

  48. 16) Order Pholidota • Traits: • Body covered with overlapping scales. • No teeth, but a very long tongue. • Example: spiny anteaters

  49. 17) Order Hyracoidea • Traits: • Rabbit-like body, short ears, 3-4 numbered hoof. • Example: hyrax

  50. 18) Order Dermoptera • Traits: • Squirrel-like body, can glide by stretching skin. • Example: flying lemur