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Chapter 8 Chemical equations & Reactions

Chapter 8 Chemical equations & Reactions

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Chapter 8 Chemical equations & Reactions

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  1. Chapter 8Chemical equations & Reactions Finding (Counting) the numbers of atoms or moles of atoms in a compound (NH4)2SO4 N= S= H= O= Total Number of atoms=

  2. Now put a Coefficient in front of that compound4(NH4)2SO4 N= S= H= O= Total Number of atoms=Mg3(PO4)2 Mg= P= O=3Mg3(PO4)2 Mg= P= O=

  3. Try TheseH2SO45 H2SO4(NH4)3PO44(NH4)3PO4Al(NO3)33 Al(NO3)3

  4. Hydrates can be Troublesome!CuSO4*5H2O4 CuSO4*5H2O6CaCl2*5H2O

  5. I. Chemical Equations: show the chemical formulas and the amounts of reactants & products. Show phases in chemical rxn! s,l,g,aq preciptate

  6. Law of Conservation of Matter, Mass, Energy and Charge all apply to chemical equations. None are created nor destroyed, just rearrangedReactants=Products Review endo A + B + Energy C exo A + B C + energy B. coefficients”# in front of formula that tells the #of molecules, moles, atoms or formula units(ionic) taking part in rxn. Ex: 2H2 + O2 2H2O sum of coefficients= ___molecules(moles) of hydrogen and ___molecules(moles) of oxygen yield/makes___molecules(moles) of water

  7. II. A Is the equation Balanced? Yes or Norules: 1. List all atoms 2. Count atoms on both the reactant and product side Ex: 2Na + 2H2O  2NaOH + H2

  8. Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2

  9. B. Writing chemical Equations from word equations1. Write formulae(remember diatomics)2.Determine coefficients to balance equationsHint: Table K /L for acids and bases Chlorine + Sodium Bromide  Bromine + Sodium Chloride

  10. Aluminum + oxygen  aluminum oxide

  11. Aluminum sulfate + calcium chloride  aluminum chloride + calcium sulfate

  12. 1A. 5NH3 N=5 H=15 B. Ca(OH)2 Ca=1 O=2 H=2 C. 3BaSO4*5H2O Ba=3 S=3 O= 12 + 15 =27 H=30 D. 6Na(C2H3)4 Na=6 C=48 H=72 2. Silicon tetrachloride(g) + magnesium(s) silicon(s)+ magnesium chloride (s) 3A Yes Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2

  13. B. No H2SO4 + 2NaOH  H2O + Na2SO4 c. No Pb(NO3)2+ 2NaI  PbI2 + NaNO3 D. No Na + O2 Na2O E. No Cu + S  Cu2S F. Yes CuO + H2 Cu + H2O G. Yes Ba(OH)2 + CO2 BaCO3 + H2O

  14. 1a Ok Zn + H2SO4 ZnSO4 + H2 b. 2K + Br2 2KBr c. 2 H2O  O2 +2 H2 d. Cl2 + 2KI  2KCl + I2 e. Ok HNO3 + LiOH  H2O + LiNO3 • 2 N2 + O2 2 N2O • Ok NH4Cl + NaOH NH4OH + NaCl

  15. 2a Na(s) + I2(S) NaI(s) 2Na(s) + I2(S)2 NaI(s) B. Zn(s) + HBr(aq)  ZnBr2(s) + H2(g) Zn(s) + 2HBr(aq)  ZnBr2(s) + H2(g) C. KOH(s)  K2O(s) + H2O(l) 2KOH(s)  K2O(s) + H2O(l)

  16. D Mg(s) + H2O(l)  Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g) Mg(s) + 2H2O(l)  Mg(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)

  17. pg3 1.A Ca + O2  CaO 1B. 2Ca + O2 2 CaO 2A H2O  H2 + O2 2B 2 H2O  2H2 + O2 3A. Br2 + NaCl  NaBr + Cl2 3B Br2 + 2NaCl  2NaBr + Cl2 4A. Mg + FeCl3  MgCl2 + Fe 4B. 3Mg + 2FeCl3 3 MgCl2 + 2Fe

  18. 5A. KOH + AlI3  KI + Al(OH)3 5B 3 KOH + AlI3  3KI + Al(OH)3 6A. FeCl2 + BaSO4  FeSO4 + BaCl2 6B. FeCl2 + BaSO4  FeSO4 + BaCl2 7A. Al2S3 + LiNO3  Al(NO3)3 + Li2S 7B Al2S3 + 6LiNO3 2 Al(NO3)3 +3 Li2S

  19. III. Types of Reactions • Synthesis (Direct Combination)- put together Ex. A+B C Element + Element  Compound C + E  C

  20. B. Decomposition (Analysis)- to break apart( Most require a catalyst (speeds up the rate of rxn without being altered or changed) • Name 3 catalysts • . Heat • Electricity • Chemicals • Catalyst can be placed above arrow • Ex ABA+B C E +E

  21. p. 27822a sodium + oxygen  sodium oxide 4Na + O2  2Na2O22b. Magnesium + fluorine  magnesium fluoride Mg + F2  MgF2

  22. 23A. 2HgO  2Hg + O223B 2 H2O  2H2 + O223C 2Ag2O  4Ag + O223D. CuCl2  Cu + Cl2

  23. 38 A potassium + chlorine  potassium chloride 2K + Cl2  2KCl38B hydrogen + iodine  hydrogen iodide H2 + I2  2HI38C magnesium + oxygen  magnesium oxide 2Mg + O2  2MgO

  24. C. Single Replacement-one element switches or cuts in Ex. Metals (cations) C + AB CB + A m only replace m Nonmetals(anions) C + AB AC + B nm only replace nm E + C  E + C

  25. Will SR occur? Use Table Jelement that is coming in must be higher on the chart than element in compound Cr + FeSO4 Zn + AgNO3 

  26. Cl2 + NaF F2 + NaI--->

  27. D. Double Replacement -2 elements switch or cut in What drives DR? Must form water, gas ppt(s ) AB + CD  AD + CB C + C C + C Ex. AgNO3 + NaCl  AgCl + NaNO3

  28. p. 27935a Ni + CuCl2 NiCl2 + Cu35b Zn + Pb(NO3)2  Zn(NO3)2 + Pb35c. Cl2 + 2KI 2KCl + I235d no rxn35e Ba + 2H2O  H2 + Ba(OH)2

  29. 36a 2Ca + O2 2CaO36b. 2Ni + O2  2NiO36 c no rxn

  30. p. 27825a AgNO3 + NaCl  NaNO3 + AgCl25b. Mg(NO3)2 + 2KOH  Mg(OH)2 + 2KNO325c 3LiOH + Fe(NO3)3  3LiNO3 + Fe(OH)3

  31. IV. Missing Reactant or product • List atoms 2. Find what is not equal Ex: 2Na + 2H2O  X + 2NaOH

  32. CaCO3 CaO + ________________

  33. 2Al + _______  2AlCl3 + 3H2

  34. V. Determine Missing Mass Law of Conservation of Mass: Total mass of reactants = total mass of products Ex#1 If 103.0g of potassium chlorate are decomposed to form 62.7g of potassium chloride and oxygen gas according to the equation, how many grams of oxygen are formed? 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2

  35. Ex#2 Reactant (s) Product(s)Magnesium + Oxygen  Magnesium Oxide ? g + 16.0g  40.3gBased on the Law of Conservation of Mass predict the minimum amount of magnesium that will react with 16.0g of oxygen to produce 40.3 g of magnesium oxide.

  36. Ex#3Reactant(s) Product(s)Magnesium + Oxygen  Magnesium Oxide 12.2g + 8.0g  ?gAssuming that magnesium and oxygen will react completely with one another, predict the mass of magnesium oxide that will be produced.

  37. Ex#4 Reactant(s) Product(s)Magnesium + Oxygen  Magnesium Oxide + Oxygen 48.6g + 50.0g  80.6g + ?gPredict the mass of oxygen that will be left over after the reaction of 48.6 grams of magnesium with 50.0 g of oxygen