Title: Traditional Irrigation Tanks Renovation in India to Mitigate Climate Change Theme 1 : Global Change & Risk Management Topic 1.1 : Adapting to Climate Change Session 1.1.3 Organised by Presented by 5th World Water Forum A.Gurunathan Chief Executive DHAN Vayalagam (Tank) Foundation, Madurai, INDIA at Istanbul, Turkey 16-22 March 2009
Mission of DHAN Foundation ”Building People and Institutions for development innovations and upscaling to enable the poor communities for poverty reduction and self reliance”.
DHAN Foundation and its Purpose Mothering of Development Innovations • Promote and Nurture new ideas on different development themes. • Senior colleagues anchor new themes for longer period Promoting institutions to reach scale • Exclusive thematic organisations as subsidiaries for promotional role to upscale Human Resource Development • Building socially concerned professionals for the development sector
Climate Change: Facts & Figures (FEARS) • Global Climate warmer by 0.7 deg. C – Anthropogenic effect • Increased Intensity and frequency of intense rainfall - causing floods • In India, mean annual surface temperature rose by 0.5 deg. C • Sea level rise has been 1.0 to 1.75 mm per year • Projected increase of 20% rise in all India summer monsoon • Per capita fresh water availability would come down to 1000 cu.m from 1800 cu.m by 2025. • Every 1 deg. C rise in temperature lead to production loss of wheat by 4.5 million MT and poses threat to food self sufficiency of India • Human Health Implications • Increase in malnutrition • Spatial distribution of Infections’ vectors. • Exacerbation of cholera.
Vulnerability of Climate Change • Endemic poverty • Limited access to capital • Degradation of ecosystem • Disasters and conflicts • Failure of government system
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Adaption Step 1 Assessment of Impacts and Vulnerability Step 2 Capacity Building Step 3 Adaptation Measures
Performance of the Agricultural Sector Source: World Bank Development 2008 Report
"These are the monuments of real Kings, who were the fathers of their people; testators to a posterity which they embraced as their own. These are the grand sepulchres built by ambition; but by the ambition of an insatiable benevolence, which, not contented with reigning in the dispensation of happiness during the contracted term of human life, had strained, with all the reachings and graspings of vivacious mind, to extend the dominion of their bounty beyond the limits of nature, and to perpetuate themselves through generations, the guardians, the protectors, the nourishers of mankind". Edmund Burke, (1785) on minor irrigation tanks in South India
Tanks in India : Potential • There are about 1.2 to 1.5 million tanks still in use and sustaining everyday life in the 0.66 million Villages in India (Source: Deep Narayan Pandey, IASCP, Indiana 2000) • National Water Mission under National Action Plan on Climate Change proposed infrastructural development of minor irrigation schemes in situations sensitive to climate change (Source: Comprehensive Mission documents, Government of India, December 2008) • DHAN Foundation has organised about 170,000 farmers and landless in 2300 villages in South India and renovated more than 1800 traditional water bodies since 1992. (Source: Annual Reports of DHAN Foundation) • Tanks have been the most important source of irrigation in India and many of them date as far back as the Rig vedic period, around 1500 BC (source: Historical Research on Tank Irrigation, DHAN, 2007)
Toposheet showing the Tank population 388 Tanks in an Area of 104.66 sq.km There exist about 1,40,000 tanks in South India
Panaromic Remote Sensing Map of Cascades of Irrigation Tanks in India Source: NRSA
Number of Tanks in the Southern States of India Source: Tank Irrigation by Dr.K.Palanisami
BENEFITS FROM A COMPREHENSIVE TANK SYSTEM MANAGEMENT Crop yield doubled (2 assured crops a year) Increased tree cover Employment Generation Migration of birds stopped & immigration encouraged Dairy development Improved nutrition (more food, more milk) Benefits from a Healthy Tank System Cultural life improved Fisheries development Increased green and dry and fodder Sustained availability of water for drinking and agriculture Fertility of the dry-lands improved Food Security Effective Soil Conservation Ground water situation improves electricity will be saved
TANK FILLING DETAILS: A Sample Case from Karnataka State (out of 10 years) Source: JSYS document, Govt. of Karnataka.
Problems affecting the tanks • Large scale infestation of weeds • Encroachments by the government and public • Siltation in waterspreads and channels • Choked or leaky sluices and damaged weirs • Sluices with missing shutters • Dilapidated and weak or cut down tank bunds • Urbanization without consideration for ecology and environment
Tank Irrigated Area in India, 1950-51 to 1999-2000 Source: Tank Irrigation by Dr.K.Palanisami
Share of Tank and Well Irrigated Area to Net Irrigated Area, India Source: Tank Irrigation by Dr.K.Palanisami
Statewise Percentage Change in Tank Irrigated Area: 1999-2000 over 1962-63 Source: Tank Irrigation by Dr.K.Palanisami
Area under Tank Irrigation by Farm Size, 1970 -71 to 1990-91- India (Area in ‘000 ha) Source: Tank Irrigation by Dr.K.Palanisami
Rainfall & Tank Irrigated Area- Tamil Nadu Source: Tank Irrigation by Dr.K.Palanisami
Southwest plus Northeast Rainfall and Tank Irrigated Area: Tamil Nadu Source: Tank Irrigation by Dr.K.Palanisami
Tank storage levels over a 10 year period, Tamil Nadu a based on a 50 years' rainfall data. Source: Tank Irrigation by Dr.K.Palanisami
Pattern of Tank Improvement Benefits in a 10 Year Cycle, Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu. Source: Research of Water technology centre by Dr.K.Palanisami
Rice yield and supplemental irrigations (Qtl/ha) Source: Tank Irrigation by Dr.K.Palanisami
Rural Community Innovations in Small Scale Water Resources Sector • Creating Dead Storage in Minor Irrigation Tanks below Sill Level of Irrigation Sluice and integrate Fish Rearing • Revive Traditional Water Distribution ( Plug and Rod Shutters and placing Water Managers (Neerkattis) • Water Resources Development at Cascade Level (Leverage funds from SGRY, NREGA); Employment based Livelihoods • Vulnerability Mapping for breaching and flooding and Establishing Early Warning System (Piloting at a sub basin level) • Renovation of Traditional Drinking Water Ponds (Ooranis) in Scientific Way
Rural Community Innovations in Small Scale Water Resources Sector • Conjunctive Use of Surface and Ground Water by utilizing tanks and community well • Setting up Disaster Mitigation Funds with exclusive focus on providing interest free loan to develop water resources • Endowment and Corpus grant for the preservation of water resources in future by Community Organizations • Action Research on Micro Irrigation based Paddy Cultivation in Tank Irrigation Command • Developing Rural Youth and train them to actively participate in rescue and provide first aid while disaster strikes.
Rural Community Innovations in House hold Water Treatment • Sensitizing the People on the Quality of Water Consumed • Orientation to Community on Cost Efficient and Effective household Water Treatment Products • Training the Users on Installation of Bio sand Filters • Periodic Quality Monitoring of Water
Suggestions for Climate Change Adaptation in Indian Context • Tanks are Life lines of underprivileged poor and rural community • Investment in Tank Infrastructure development by the Government with Bilateral assistance or World Bank/ADB credit should focus Community driven, tank cascade development at sub basin level. • Roles for CBOs, NGOs and Government should be well defined with partnership principle • Convergence of schemes – Single Window Approach should be given priority • Adequate Resource Allocation for carrying out Action Research on Tank Irrigation Systems • New Product development comprehensively to tackle risks through Mutual Insurance should be complemented.
Alternative solution Remains in the concept . . GLOBAL THINKING FOR LOCAL ACTION Let us discuss . . Thank You