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Aeromedical Factors

Aeromedical Factors. Presented by: CW2 Justin Dudley. Objective. To develop the student Instructor Pilot’s understanding of the Aeromedical Factors associated with Army Aviation. References: FM 1-301 AR 40-8. Elements. Fatigue Self-Imposed Stresses Hypoxia Spatial Disorientation

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Aeromedical Factors

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  1. AeromedicalFactors Presented by: CW2 Justin Dudley

  2. Objective • To develop the student Instructor Pilot’s understanding of the Aeromedical Factors associated with Army Aviation References: FM 1-301 AR 40-8

  3. Elements • Fatigue • Self-Imposed Stresses • Hypoxia • Spatial Disorientation • Middle Ear Discomfort

  4. Fatigue: A Result of Stress • Acute: The loss of both coordination and awareness of errors is the first type of fatigue to develop. • Chronic: This is much more serious and occurs over longer periods of time. In addition to physical tiredness, mental tiredness develops.

  5. Reduction of Fatigue • Good Physical Fitness • Limitations of Self Imposed Stress • Good Living Conditions • Improved Working Conditions • Leave Adequate Time for R&R • Realistic Time for Total Duty and Flying Hours • High Levels of Confidence and Proficiency

  6. Self Imposed Stresses • Drugs • Exhaustion • Alcohol • Tobacco • Hypoglycemia

  7. Hypoxia State of oxygen [O2] deficiency in the blood cells and tissues sufficient to cause impairment of function.

  8. Types of Hypoxia • Hypemic • Stagnant • Histotoxic • Hypoxic

  9. Hypoxic Hypoxia Reduced pO2 in the lungs (high altitude) Red blood cells Body tissue

  10. HypemicHypoxia Inability of the blood to accept oxygen in adequate amounts + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +

  11. Stagnant Hypoxia adequate oxygen Reduced blood flow Blood moving slowly Red blood cells not replenishing tissue needs fast enough

  12. Histotoxic Hypoxia Inability of the cell to accept or use oxygen adequate oxygen Red blood cells retain oxygen Poisoned tissue

  13. HypoxiaSymptoms Subjective: Feel Air hunger Hot and Cold Flashes Apprehension Euphoria Fatigue Belligerence Nausea Blurred vision Headache Numbness Dizziness Tingling Denial

  14. HypoxiaSigns Objective: See Hyperventilation Cyanosis Mental confusion Poor Judgment Lack of muscle coordination

  15. Stages of Hypoxia • Indifferent Stage • Compensatory Stage • Disturbance Stage • Critical Stage

  16. Indifferent Stage • Altitudes MSL: 0 - 10,000 FEET • Symptoms: Decrease in night vision @ 4000 feet

  17. Compensatory Stage • Altitudes MSL: 10,000 - 15,000 FEET • Symptoms: impaired efficiency drowsiness poor judgment decreased coordination

  18. Disturbance Stage • Altitudes Air: 15,000 - 20,000 FEET

  19. Signs Hyperventilation Cyanosis Disturbance Stage

  20. Mental Memory Judgment Reliability Understanding Disturbance Stagesymptoms

  21. Performance Coordination Flight Control Speech Handwriting Disturbance Stagesymptoms

  22. Time off Oxygen 1 minute 2 minutes 3 minutes 4 minutes 5 minutes 6 minutes put back on oxygen

  23. Critical Stage • Altitudes • MSL:20,000 FEET and above • Symptoms: loss of conscious ness convulsions death

  24. Crew Experience Instructor Pilot - 33 years / 3900 hrs Pilot - 8 years / 472 hrs SI - 13 years / 1100 hrs CE - 16 years / 800+ hrs

  25. Weather • ISP Metar at Takeoff (1832) 14 SC 100 OVC 5 SM BR • HTO Metar at approach (1906) Cig Indef Vertical Vis 0 1/2 SM FG • FOK Metar at approach (1929) 2 OVC 1/2 SM FG • ISP Metar at mishap (2017) Indef Vertical Vis 100’ 1/4 SM FG

  26. SEQUENCE OF EVENTS • Normal Departure from ISP (1832) • VOR Approach to missed at HTO (1906) • LOC Approach to missed at FOK (1927) • LOC Approach to missed at ISP (1957) • 2nd approach at ISP, no commo after FAF • Aircraft crashes (2017)

  27. Aircraft Heading 250o 290o / 400’ from Threshold 300 / 60 X 300 / 60 300 / 70 06 400 / 90 400 / 90 400 / 90 400 / 90 AIRCRAFT PATH NYARTCC RADAR PLOT DATA

  28. 12 Visual Illusions • F • F • F • C • R • A • S • H • C • S • A • R

  29. False Vertical/Horizontal Cues(False Horizon) Occurs when the pilot subconsciously chooses the wrong reference point for orientation

  30. Flicker Vertigo Caused by sunlight flickering through rotor blades Rotating beacons reflecting against an overcast sky or against the windscreen

  31. FIXATION/ FASCINATION • Pilot intent on hitting target • Pilot forgets to fly aircraft • Flies into target or ground • Flies through shrapnel

  32. Confusion with Ground Lights • Along seashores or rural areas • Ground lights may be perceived as celestial lights • Celestial lights may be perceived as ground lights

  33. RELATIVE MOTION • Falsely perceived self-motion in relation to the real motion of another object

  34. ALTERED PLANES OF REFERENCE • Inaccurate sense of altitude, attitude, or flight path • Mountains / Valleys

  35. Structural Illusion The phenomenon in which objects become distorted when visual obscurants are present such as rain, snow, sleet, or the curvature of a wind screen

  36. Height Perspective

  37. Size- Distance Illusion Am I too Low ? Large Wide Runway 24 Narrow Runway Am I too High ? 24

  38. AUTOKINETIC ILLUSION Occurs when a static light appears to move when it is stared at for several seconds.

  39. Autokinetic Illusion Occurs when a static light appears to move when it is stared at for several seconds

  40. REVERSIBLE PERSPECTIVE At night, an aircraft may appear to be going away when it is actually approaching.

  41. REVERSABLE PERSPECTIVE At night, an aircraft may appear to be going away when it is actually approaching

  42. Crater Illusion CRATER ILLUSION An illusion that the aircraft is landing into a hole or crater, created when the search light is positioned too far under the nose of the aircraft

  43. DEPTH PERCEPTION • Due to lack of of sufficient visual cues pilots may experience the illusion of being higher than they actually are: • Whiteout / Brownout • Flying over desert / water • Hovering over tall grass

  44. Spatial Disorientation • An individual's inaccurate perception of position, attitude, and motion relative to the center of the earth.

  45. THE CONDITION MOST SUSCEPTIBLE TO SPATIAL DISORIENTATION IS -- • During a sudden and unexpected transition from VMC to IMC flight conditions

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