The British Colonies – Comparing Regional Cultures 2 Column Notes
Long-Term Causes of the American Revolution • Political Background • English Political Ideas Influence the Colonies • Magna Carta • Limited the Monarch’s right to Tax and guaranteed Due Process • Parliament • A bicameral (2 house) legislature with an elected lower house. Representatives have the power to tax the people • English Bill of Rights • Right to Habeaus Corpus (to be charge and brought to trial). No Cruel or unusual punishment • Differences between English & Colonial Gov’t • Salutary Neglect - British policy towards the colonizes that allowed colonies local self-rule in exchange for cooperation with economic policies and help fighting France and Spain in the Americas. • Colonies have Elected assemblies • Mercantilism – belief that European nations should maximize exports (to make $) and minimize imports (sell more than you buy) • Colonies are used as markets for European nations. Colonies can ONLY trade with their mother countries • England becomes very wealthy from this policy • French & Indian War (7 yrs war) effects • French vs. England for control of North America (England wins) • War puts England heavily into debt, they expect the colonist to help pay for the war
Competition & Conflict - Outline • Wars of Empire • European competition and the Colonies • British and the French are the main rivalry & fought several wars • France benefits from alliance with many Native American tribes, forts along Ohio & Mississippi Rivers • Britain benefits from growing population, powerful navy • French and Indian War (aka 7 years war) • War for control over north America, starts badly for the British but shifts when Britain uses navy to cut off French Supplies • Britain drives the French from North America and continues to fight the French in other areas of the world • Treaty of Paris (1763) gives Britain all of the French land in N.A. • Aftermath of Competition • Britain wanted greater control over colonies after going into debt in French & Indian War • Parliament thought colonist should pay these costs • American colonists create a delegation to cooperate in the event of another conflict (Albany Plan of Union)
Causes of the Revolution • Thomas Moore’s “Utopia”. Popular in the 1690’s. promoted the idea that a place of peace, harmony, and fairness exists. The idea was to contrast this with the Europe of their day, which was the opposite. • 1607-1763-Pre-revolutionary colonial development included the extension of British/protestant ideals that went far beyond the practices at home in Britain. • I.E. Changes to religion, economics, politics, and social structure allowed colonists to try and mirror this idealized reflection.
Causes of the Revolution • Religion- More tolerance, Separation of church and state • Economics- Outgrow and expand on Mercantilist system. (Promoted what some considered early capitalist practices) • Politics-Liberty, Republicanism, and self government more prominent. • Social Structure-Not clearly defined, More opportunity for industrious individuals.
Causes of the Revolution • Developments that led to the end of Salutary neglect: Wars for Empire • -Defeat France, Comfort on the Northern and Western frontiers, (especially for NY, NE) • Nobody to encourage and assist Natives in aggressive response to land being taken. Natives had to make peace. • British institutions and customs now ascendant worldwide. (Top Dogs/Masters of the Universe) • Consequence: Colonists indifferent to military service, preferred militias, distrusted standing armies.
Causes of the Revolution • 4 major wars for Empire required coordination between armies and navies, were very costly. • Fighting in the new world required specialized training and more rifles. • Wars were fought over resources, control of the land. • Colonists fought for homes, their families, their futures, their lands, then the King.
Causes of the Revolution • Colonists came to value the INdependence, not the INTERdependence of the colonies b/c they had unique traits in the GB empire, lots of non-English migration had occurred, wide distribution of property, and could vote locally (Right of Suffrage).
Causes of the Revolution • The Great Awakening was stronger in the colonies than elsewhere. • Erosion of social privileges that had been stronger in other places in the empire. • The creation of colleges and newspapers gave the colonies a more distinct feel distanced them from their British counterparts. Thus, in trying to “Keep up with the Joneses”, they inadvertently started doing their own thing.
Causes of the Revolution • Even during the wars for Empire, Salutary neglect existed. The Colonies were not seen as the most important part of the New World, that distinction went to the Caribbean. (Better weather, distinctive trading goods and methods). • Dependence on Mercantilist polices and trade regulation actually had dropped off a bit in the colonies after the Glorious Revolution.
Causes of the Revolution • The spreading of Enlightenment ideologies. • Colonists more apt to be skeptical and out spoken. (Vast ocean separate harsher realties of tyranny for a time, no Tower of London execution squads to fear down the street for being a rabble rouser) • The Renaissance spirit flourished with the colonists sense of ingenuity and work ethic. • Imperial Wars required the colonies to cooperate with each other, hence the similarities in their life styles were emphasized by the colonists as opposed to their differences. • Realized the subtle strength in their unity over time.
Causes of the Revolution • The British had the opposite view. Parliament disliked the militias in the colonies. • Colonial militiamen from different colonies, who spent time together, came to see the has less and less in common with the British soldiers.
Causes of the Revolution • Demographics: By 1754, 2/3 of the colonists were born in the colonies. And 1/3 of those not born in the colonies were not English. Thus, for these people, the ties (Emotional, Spiritual, Political, Economic, Social) to England were more limited.
Country Ideology • Byproduct of political tension in Europe. Outgrowth of “Real Whig” ideology in England. • Focused on the need for government to: • Protect natural rights • Protect people from each other. (people are inherently selfish creatures) However: Government is inherently expansive and aggressive, so people must have the right to check the power of government if government goes too far.
Court Ideology • Allow the Monarch to spread their power over Parliament through a system of patronage (I.E. Bribery) • This system took advantage of those without power and maintained a level of corruption in society that oversaw a status quo that maintained strict social class distinctions.
Country Ideology • Whigs felt that Parliament was necessary in protecting the people from the tyranny of the Monarch, and that the House of Commons was a check on the power of the Monarch because it had control over the treasury. • Reps in Parliament had to: be educated to make good judgements, show civic virtue, non-partisan in the face of the opposition, trustworthy in the face of rampant bribery.
Court v. Country Ideology • The debate over these ideals would begin in England and spill over into the colonies. Slowly, Country Ideology was taken and interpreted by different groups of colonists (Mostly in the backcountry) who felt it to be the system of government they most preferred as it supposedly lessened the burdens of life and politics. Others in the colonies, used to a more gentrified courtly manner, sided with the Parliament and remained very loyal to the crown who made the most important decisions, and allowed people to not focus on politics at all.
Causes of the Revolution • Republicanism • Separate from Country Ideology • Complex, Fluid, Changing body of ideas and values • 17th, 18th, 19th century view- Derived from ancient Greece and Rome, rebirthed during the Renaissance, and crafted as a result of the Protestant reformation and the struggles of early modern England.
Causes of the Revolution • Republicanism • Four Main Ideas • Self Government (Direct or Indirect) –Better for society and individual freedom. • Popular Sovereignty- Created by “Social Contract theory on Government”-Gov’t granted power by its people. • Central Government-To oversee and unite the people. • For self government to work, citizens must be spirited, active, and educated. They must have civic virtue. • What document reflects these values ? • The Declaration of Independence
French and Indian War • 1754: Albany Plan of Union • 1754 – 1763: 7 Years War • 1763: 4 HUGE EVENTS! • End of French and Indian War • End of Salutary Neglect • Pontiac’s Rebellion • Proclamation Line of 1763
Revolution! Events in Succession • 1764-Colonial Assemblies win the right to levy taxes. • 1764-Parliament passes the Sugar Tax, an indirect tax. • 1765-Colonists protest the Stamp Tax • (Quick side notes.....These taxes focused more on the wholesale distribution of these products. This impacted the merchants more than any other group. Regular colonists, who sometimes benefited from the taxes, were caught up in the fact that the taxes were being imposed without having a voice that represented them in Parliament.) • 1767-Parliament passes the Townsend Acts, • which taxes a little bit of everything (glass, paper, tea, paint, lead). • 1767-Violence erupts in Boston over the Townsend Acts. • The Liberty is taken by customs agents for smuggling. The ships owner. John Hancock, was not pleased. Riots are suppressed by an influx of British troops. • 1770-Customs agents attacked by Boston colonists. • 1770-Five "patriots" killed in the Boston Massacre. • 1773-The "Sons of Liberty" organize the Boston Tea Party. • 1774-Parliament passes the Intolerable Acts. • This shuts down the Massachusetts colonial assembly and imposes martial law in Boston. • 1774- the First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia.
1760s • Britain is in DEBT! • Answer? • Tax the colonists • Sugar Act: 1764 • Purpose to raise revenue • Colonists Smuggled • Stamp Act: 1765 • Tax on 50 Commonly used goods • Colonists =
1760s….. • Stamp Act Congress: 1765 • Congress….. Colonies • First attempt at colonial unity AGAINST British • Declaratory Act: 1776 • Britain can pass ALL laws (including taxes) in the future • Townshend Acts: 1767 • Tax on imports (tea, glass, etc.) • Also repealed
1770s • Boston Massacre: 1770 • 5 colonists are killed, no British soldiers • Tea Act: 1773 • Bail out British East India Company • Colonists are • This leads to…….. • Boston Tea Party: December 1773 • Sons of Liberty • This leads to……
1770s…… • Intolerable/Coercive Acts (1774) • Closed port of Boston • Quartering Act • This leads to…… • 1st Continental Congress (1774) • Colonial unity AGAINST the British • Side Note: Quebec Act: 1774 • Extended boundaries of French Canada • Granted Canadians right to practice Catholicism
1770s…… • Lexington and Concord: April 1775 • “Shot heard round the world” • Start of the Revolutionary War
Timeline of Events • May 1775 – Second Continental Congress Meets • New Continental Army created and command given to George Washington • July 1775 Congress send “Olive Branch Petition” to King George III • Petition is rejected • January 1776 Common Sense by Thomas Paine is published • Proposed independence, republican state go’vt and a union of states • July 2nd 1776 Congress votes that America is free • July 4th 1776 Approve the Declaration of Independence • Based on Enlightenment ideas that all men have natural (unalienable rights)
Conflicting Version of the Outbreak of The American Revolution (1775)Lexington and Concord Colonists British
Should the Colonists declare Independence? Advantages Disadvantages
The Declaration of Independence • 4 Parts • Equality Assumption- “All men are created Equal” (Natural rights can either be taken or given away) • Philosophical dispute - ”Government created to protect people natural rights” • Public Enemy #1 - George III is a tyrant –Abuses listed as evidence. • Conclusion-Revolution!, because the colonists are justified. • Despite all of this, only 1/5 of the population favored revolution in 1775/1776. 20% are loyal Tories , and the rest are either undecided men, Native American, African American, or Women with no political rights to speak of.
Revolutionary War • Battle of Saratoga: 1777 • Significance: France enters war on behalf of the colonists • Turning point in the war! • Battle of Yorktown: 1781 • Last major battle • Peace of Paris: 1783
Should the Colonists declare Independence? Advantages Disadvantages Might cause division within the colonies If Revolution failed, the and leaders might be tried and executed as traitors. Might lose friends in England who supported cause of colonists in regard to representation in Parliament but not independence Colonies were poorlyprepared for warFighting the largest military power in the worldNo weapons normanufacturing to make them Colonists would be cutting themselves off from the biggest, freest empire in theworld. Sentimental attachment to homeland • Stating for the world the ideological basis of this new country • Freedom from subservience to the King • Independence might unite different areas of the colonies • Possibility of foreign aid from France • Legitimacy in the world community • Captured soldiers treated as POWs not spies or rebels
North Carolina: William Hooper Joseph Hewes John Penn
Strengths and Weaknessesof the British Army Strengths Weaknesses Hubris Did not take the colonists seriously Misunderstood the nature of the conflict Wanted to fight a traditional war • World Power • Population over 4 times the size of the colonies • Leader in Manufacturing • Established Central Government • Well trained troops with plenty of supplies
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Patriot Army Strengths Weaknesses At least 1/5 of population were loyalists and another 1/5 were slaves (many of whom supported the British) The American people were starting from scratch. No central government Continental congress struggled to pay for the war Paper money caused inflation Soldiers suffered from hunger and cold Troops were outnumbered and often outmaneuvered • Persistence • Skillful retreats saved the army • Used Guerilla warfare and unorthodox tactics • Worked with local militias understanding of the local terrain • Received aid and support from civilian population
Turning Pts. Of the War 3. Battle of Saratoga France Enter the War!!! 1. Battle of Trenton Battle of Monmouth 2. Battle of Princeton The British Move South Realize they can’t win the North Believe loyalists in the South with help them Believe capturing southern cities will cause the colonists to surrender Battle of Yorktown
Turning Points of the American RevolutionWhat factors helped the patriots win the war? Patriot Victories Yes, winning battles help win the war… Crossing of the Delaware River - modest victory • December 26, 1776 – The Battle of Trenton • January 1777 – Battle of Princeton • October 1777 – Battle of Saratoga • December 1777 – Valley Forge • February 1778 – The French enter the war as America’s ally (sending military aid) • June 1778 – Victory at the Battle of Monmouth • October 19th 1781 - Yorktown Washington vs. Cornwallis = British suffer large casualties = 1783 Treaty of Paris signed recognizing American Independence and gave large territory to the new nation Benedict Arnold Defeat s the British! Encouraged France to enter the war Survive the Winter & improve as soldiers Marquis de Lafayette + a NAVY!!! American Soldiers demonstrate improved discipline Washington traps Cornwallis with the help of the French Navy
Economic Disruption in the Revolution and The Early Republic • War=A disruption of the distribution of goods and services. • Rapid and intense demand for supplies, integrated with normal buying and selling distribution • Thus, real prices (adjusted for inflation) are 7-8 times higher than before the war. -Depreciation of paper money makes the serve inflation even worse. -Congress and the states had no hard currency, Continental dollar had no value. 1780-Congress publically admits the money is worthless. Some ration goods for barter economy. Other resort to eating dogs, cats, horse, and any other animal.
Economic Disruption in the Revolution and The Early Republic • Effect on people is demoralizing. It doesn’t end with the war either. The real wealth of private individuals does not increase for 3 decades. • Silver Linings-Situation forced the US to trade more with the Caribbean and South America. Attempts were made to increase manufacturing, and trade between states increased.
Economic Disruption in the Revolution and The Early Republic • That Same Old Problem Again • Congress and the states take on debt to pay for the war. Issued bonds promising repayment. • By 1783, the nation is 11 million dollars in debt, rose to 28 million under the Articles of Confederation. • Robert Morris, Philly merchant, proposes plans to solve the crisis. Plans fall through. State debt never transfers to national debt, states wont work with each other.
Economic Disruption in the Revolution and The Early Republic • Post War, the French and GB flood the nations merchants with cheap manufactured goods. • Republican values high, but Americans go on a spending spree that leaves merchants and consumers go into debt just as fast as Congress. • Inflation ends the buying power of farmers. • Foreign allies and Continental soldiers demand payment, but it was not going to happen.
Economic Disruption in the Revolution and The Early Republic • Everyone… • Merchants, creditors, commercial farmers, privateers, and other influential people wanted laws passed to protect them under the Articles of Confederation. • Wanted higher Taxes to pay off debts • Wanted paper money backed by metal (Gold or Silver) • Wanted increase in foreign trade
Ideas after American Revolution • Republican Motherhood: • Women were to raise children to be good citizens of the United States • Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom: • Created by Jefferson, religious freedom, influences the Bill of Rights • Popular Sovereignty: • Idea that people are the source of power and have a say in government
Articles of Confederation First governing document of the United States ***NO STRONG CENTRAL GOVERNMENT*** To amend the Articles, all 13 states’ approval was necessary