accessibility planning tools n.
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  2. Useful accessibility planning tools • Integrated rural accessibility planning (IRAP) Comprehensive planning approach which puts all ways of improving access on the same footing • Accessibility planning: defines an indicator of isolation which enables the planner to define the core network

  3. IRAP: what it is Maps patterns of isolation in a community, using surveys of household travel needs and problems Defines a hierarchy of actions to reduce it such as Road improvements Improving tracks and footpaths Improved transport services/IMT promotion Relocating clinics and basic services Sets priorities based on cost-effectiveness indices

  4. IRAP: how it is done Collect data using household surveys Present accessibility situation: existing transport and travel and access problems, Process data Set up computerised database Analyse and map accessibility planning information Produce tables, graphs, maps and overlays and identify solutions Hold workshops to validate results and explore priorities and solutions Produce area accessibility profile to compare theoretical access problems with those perceived by the population Set accessibility targets Formulate and prioritise interventions and harmonize with higher level ones for implementation

  5. IRAP: for and against For: Very cost-effective for rural areas because it is not road-centred Centred on local participation so more sustainable Solutions appropriate to local problems Against: Only applicable for quite small areas Heavy in skilled resources Can be difficult to integrate within regional or national programmes

  6. IRAP : practical considerations

  7. Basic access planning: what it is An easily applied tool to define and prioritize investment in core road networks It defines an accessibility objective like: most people should be within a reasonable walking distance of a road where motor transport is available (index such as 2km: long walks =less invstment) It can integrate poverty reduction by using diffential weighting for known « poverty pockets »

  8. Basic access planning: inputs A map showing: Distribution of villages and populations Location of services The road network: type and condition; Two road condition surveys necessary: the first covering the entire network to provide information for core network definition; the second on the core network only to calculate work volumes and costs Community surveys to determine travel patterns and accessibility difficulties solvable by motor transport (also to obtain agreement on index) Participation at all levels (from politicians, through civil servants to the population) to orient data collection and guide choice of solutions Unit costs of rehabilitation and maintenance for typical road sections

  9. Basic access planning: results Investments and annual maintenance costs for a prioritised and coherent core network Staged investment programme adapted to availability of investment and maintenance budgets

  10. Accessibility planning: for and against For: Coherent and transparent investment plan in roads and tracks acceptable to almost everybody Can integrate economic evaluation tools if appropriate (traffic greater say than 30 vpd): normally rely on social cost-effectiveness indices Against: Not much: requires much more data collection and consultation than traditional feasibility studies of individual roads

  11. Accessibility planning:practical considerations Maps and road inventory often not available or inaccurate: must often be corrected Make sure that survey teams are well-trained and supervised so that subjective evaluations are consistent Engineers want to do a better job than necessary so make sure they collect only what is necessary at each stage Rapidity is important so make sure that survey teams meet daily norms Leave time to write up results together daily Consult systematically at each stage: at the beginning to fix parameters; after first survey to align results on local realities; after core network definition to ensure it is acceptable; frequently during investment programme definition to confirm conformity with availability of financing

  12. References: accessibility planning tools • IRAP gateway • Rural access index. • Basic access introduction • Integrated rural accessibility planning (IRAP) • Introduction to IRAP • Rural roads management tools guide.pdf