China and Japan Part 6, Sino-Japanese War to the 1949 Communist Victory in China. Gov/Hist 352 Campbell University
Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) • The war was over Korea. Japan believed that control of Korea was vital to its national interest. • Japan also sought to block Russia’s movement into the Far East and Manchuria. • The outcome of the war changed the world’s perception of both China and Japan. Popular opinion assumed China would easily overwhelm its little neighbor. • Japan emerged from the conflict as a world power, China as the “sick man” of Asia.
Pre War Public Opinion • The 1885 British musical, the Mikado illustrates popular opinion of the time. It opens with: • If you want to know who we are, /We are gentlemen of Japan: On many a vase and jar,/ On many a screen and fan,/ We figure in lively paint:/ Our attitudes queer and quaint. • If you think we are worked by strings,/Like Japanese marionette,/You don’t understand these things,/ It is simply court etiquette. • Following the war, the U.S. Secretary of the Navy wrote, “Japan has leaped almost at one bound to a place among the great nations of the earth.”
Events Leading to War • Japan opened Korea with a naval expedition, much as she had been opened by Perry. The result was the Treaty of Ganghwa (1876). It opened Korea to foreign trade (3 ports) and declared Korea independent from China. • The young king of Korea invited the Japanese to send advisors and military instructors. The result was a coup and counter-coup in 1884. The king and queen were seized by a Japanese supported group, then rescued by the Chinese. • War between Japan and China was temporarily prevented by the Convention of Tianjin of 1885.
Outbreak of War • The Donghak Rebellion of 1894 sparked the war. Korea asked Chinese assistance in suppressing the rebellion. Troops were sent. Japan did likewise. • Japanese ambitions led to the palace being seized and the old regent reinstalled. He then asked the Japanese to expel the Chinese. • The Chinese reacted by sending forces across the Yalu plus reinforcements by sea. The armada was commanded by Admiral Ting, a former cavalry officer. He suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of the Yalu and retreated to Wei Hai.
Battles • Japanese ground forces pushed the Chinese up the peninsula to Pyongyang and across the Yalu into Manchuria, eventually taking Port Arthur. • The Japanese forces pursued the Chinese Northern Fleet to Wei Hai. They took the port by land and destroyed the fleet. • The Japanese then occupied Taiwan without resistance.
Treaty of Shimonseki (1895) • The treaty was negotiated Li Hongzhang and Ito Hirobumi. China was forced to accept harsh conditions: • Completely renounce suzerainty over Korea. • Pay an indemnity of 300 million taels ($200 million). • Open seven new ports for trade and extend most favored nation status to Japan. • Cede the Liaotung Peninsula, Formosa (Taiwan), and the Pescadores to Japan.
The Triple Intervention • Six days after the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed, Russia (the instigator), France and Germany “advised” Japan that it would be wise to retrocede the Liaotung Peninsula. After a week’s delay, Japan agreed to do so. • Within three years, Russia had leased the peninsula, established a naval base at Port Arthur and obtained agreement to build a link to the Trans Siberian Railroad.
Kang Youwei • Kang Youwei and his protégé, Liang Qichao, were reformers who gained the attention of Emperor Guang Xu and initiated a massive reform program to redress China’s humiliating defeat by Japan. • In the absence of Prince Gong, Guang Xu was inspired to launch a preemptive coup against the Empress Dowager, Ci Xi. He was betrayed by Yuan Shikai and caught in a counter coup. Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao fled to Hong Kong and Japan, respectively. Kang Youwei (1858-1027)
The Hundred Days Reform • Prior to the coup, Kang Youwei had convinced Emperor Guang Xu that he could reform China in three years. Over the next 103 days (June 11-September 20, 1898), he issued a string of edicts. • Completely restructuring of the educational system. • Modernizing of the armed forces. • Establishing freedom of the press. • Opening banks and chambers of commerce. • Establishing government departments to encourage agriculture and mining. • None of the edicts were ever enforced.
The Open Door Policy • China’s display of weakness in the Sino-Japanese War led to a scramble for concessions. These took the form of loans, railroad construction, long-term leases of territory and spheres of influence. • Germany leased territory in Shantung. • Russia leased Port Arthur. • France leased land around Guangzhou Bay. • Britain obtained Weihaiwei and the New Territories. • The U.S. issued notes in 1899 and 1900 demanding equality of commercial opportunity and preservation of territorial integrity.
The Boxer Rebellion • The Boxer Rebellion lasted from 1899 to 1901. It was an anti-foreign and anti-Christian rebellion supported by the Qing government. The legation compound in Peking was held under siege for 55 days.
Impact of the Rebellion • The rebellion resulted in the death of 400 foreigners, missionaries, priest and nuns plus 10’s of thousands of Chinese Christians. • The legation quarter was attacked on June 20. It held out against of 80,000 Boxers and 70,000 Chinese troops with a 453-man combined force of guards until August 14. • The relief force arrived just in time to save the legations. The Boxer Rebellion was the media event of 1900. The siege of the legation and rumored massacre of foreign diplomats sold newspapers.
International Boxer Settlement • The settlement was embodied in the Peace Protocol of September, 1901. • The Chinese court with Ci Xi as regent continued to exist. Some advisors were allowed to commit suicide. • Imposed an indemnity of 450 million taels ($333 million). • Required the fortifications at Taku and along the route to Peking to be destroyed. Permitted foreign troops to be stationed along the route. • Redefined the legation quarter and permitted foreign troops to be stationed in it. • The Civil Service examinations were suspended for five years. (They were never resumed.)
Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902) • During the Boxer Rebellion, Russia occupied Manchuria and refused to withdraw its troops while pressing China for greater concessions. • Britain and Japan reacted with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. With the British backing, Japan could act as needed to protect its interest in Korea and Manchuria. Russia’s Occupation of Manchuria was a violation of the Open Door and a source of alarm to Japan, Britain and the U.S. Japan was seen as a counterbalance to Russia.
Russo- Japanese War (1904-5) • Japan crippled and then bottled up the Russian Pacific Fleet in a surprise attack on Port Arthur on February 8, 1904. • Baltic Fleet sought to sail 18,000 miles to the rescue, but was destroyed in the Battle of the Tsushima Strait on May 27, 1905. The Russians lost 8 battleships and 5,000 men plus 6,000 taken prisoner. Admiral Togo Heihachiro (a graduate of the Britannic Naval College at Dartmouth) crossed the “T” on the Baltic Fleet destroying the entire line of battle in eight minutes.
Portsmouth Treaty, NH (1905) • President Theodore Roosevelt received a Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for hosting and mediating the negotiations. • Russia agreed that Japan’s position in Korea was paramount. Five years later Japan annexed Korea. • Russia transferred all rights in Liaotung including its South Manchurian Railroad to Japan. Japan soon occupied the area with its Kwantung Army • Japan did not receive an indemnity. The U.S. was blamed and the treaty greeted with three-days of rioting. Theodore Roosevelt
Sun Yat Sen and the Revolution • Sun Yat Sen was the father of the Chinese Republic and president of the provisional government. • Sun was born near Canton, sent to Hawaii with an older brother where he became interested in Christianity. He was baptized and studied medicine in Hong Kong. He practiced medicine briefly in Macao. • Despairing the Qing’s ability to reform, he became a revolutionary and plotted an uprising in Canton. It was discovered; he fled to Japan in 1895. Sun Yat Sen (1866-1925)
Sun and the Revolution • Sun became world famous when Qing agents attempted arrest him in London in 1896. • Sun sought support for the revolution among the Chinese diasporas around the world. • In 1905, he formed the Tongminghui (Revolutionary Alliance) in Japan and promulgated his three principles: nationalism, democracy and peoples’ livelihood. • The Republican Revolution occurred in 1911with a military uprising. Sun was in the U.S. at the time. He returned to become president of the revolutionary government on Nanjing.
Fall of the Qing • Military modernization led to regionalism. The main beneficiary was Yuan Shikai who became commander of the New Army in 1895 and Governor-General of Chihli from 1901-07. Yaun was “allowed” to retire in 1909 after his supporter, Ci Xi died. • Ci Xi and Guangxu both died in 1908. The new emperor was an infant, Pu Yi. • The Manchu began belated political reforms in 1908. Provincial assemblies were elected in 1909 and a central legislature in 1910. Both became antagonist of the Qing. • In 1911, the Qing decision to nationalize the railway system caused a furor when government compensation proved meager. The republican revolution followed.
Yuan Shikai – First President • Yuan was the logical choice for president of the republic. He enjoyed foreign support, the loyalty of the New Army and the prestige of a reformer. • The child-emperor abdicated in 1912 and Yuan accepted the presidency. He agreed to move to Nanjing but never did so. • In 1916, Yuan had a Convention of Citizens declare China a monarchy with himself as emperor. The reaction was so negative that he abandoned his claim and died. Yuan Shikai (1859-1916)
Twenty-One Demands • The Twenty-One Demands were an attempt in January, 1915 to grab concessions from China when the western powers were preoccupied with WWI. • Japan sought to keep the demands secret but China leaked them in the hope of obtaining western support. The U.S. was the only power to react, citing the Open Door policy. • By May, the demands had been reduced to thirteen which were transmitted to China in the form of an ultimatum with a two day suspense.
Twenty-One Demands (Cont’d) • The demands were divided into five groups: • 1. Recognition of Japanese rights in Shandong. • 2. Extension of Japanese rights in Mongolia and Manchuria. • 3. Sino-Japanese joint operation of China’s largest steel company, the Han-Yeh-Ping.. • 4. Agreement that China was not to cede or lease any coastal area to any power other than Japan. • 5. Obligated the Chinese to employ Japanese political, financial and military advisors; permitted partial Japanese control of the Chinese police and required purchase of Japanese arms.
The Comintern Connection • After Yuan Shikai’s failed attempt at monarchy, the provisional government moved to Canton. Sun Yat Sen was selected to be president, again. • The western powers denied recognition and assistance to the provisional government. • In 1923, Sun entered into an agreement with Comintern agent, Adolf Joffe, to receive Communist assistance in unifying China. • Mikhail Borodin became his advisor to reorganize the Guomindang. • Galen Blucher served as advisor for the nationalist army.
Chiang Kai-shek • The Whampoa Military Academy was established in 1924. Chiang Kai-shek was its commander. His position gave him a power base through the loyalty of its graduates. • Chiang met Sun Yat Sen while studying in Japan and became a member of his Revolutionary Alliance. • Chiang married Mayling Soong in 1927. Chiang would have been Sun Yat Sen’s brother-in-law had Sun not died two years earlier. He became a Christian in 1929 as a condition of his marriage to Mayling. Chiang Kai-shek
The Northern Expedition (1926-7) • In March 1926, Chiang declared martial law to reduce the influence of the CCP in the GMD. A split followed between Chiang and the GMD under president Wang Jingwei. • The Northern Expedition was launched by Chiang in July 1926. The capital was moved from Canton to Wuhan, then Nanjing and finally Beijing.
Shanghai Massacre • The success of Communist labor elements in seizing Shanghai as part of the Northern Expedition led to alarm among business interests. The “Green Gang” decided to directly back Chiang, freeing him from the need for Communist support. • The Shanghai Massacre of April 12, 1927 was the beginning of the Chinese civil war. Chiang’s forces executed between 5, 000 and 6, 000 in Shanghai and other cities in the suppression of the Communist labor movement.
Nationalist Government • The nationalist government moved to Nanjing in 1927 and remained there until 1937. Wang Jingwei and the GMD made peace with Chiang. • A number of warlords joined forces with Chiang in the second phase of the Northern Expedition. The campaign only lasted two months before Beijing fell. • China had been united superficially, but had yet to incorporate its many warlord factions. Logo of the GMD Flag and national emblem of the Republic of China
Mao Zedong • In 1927, Mao Zedong wrote his now famous report from Hunan on the potential of rural revolution. It was a product of his successful Autumn Harvest Uprising. • As a native of Hunan and a peasant, he knew the potential of the rural masses was being ignored by the CCP. From the Shanghai uprisings, he also concluded that the labor proletariat was too small in number to be effective. Mao Zedong (1893-1976)
Back to Japan • The folding fan is a Japanese invention.
Late Meiji Era Politics • Success in the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars allowed the military to take advantage of constitutional loopholes to manipulate the cabinet and bypass the Diet. • The Chief of Staff of the General Staff reported directly to the Emperor in Command matters. • As of 1900, only active duty officers could serve as Ministers of the Army and the Navy. The services could break the cabinet by recalling their minister. • The cabinet accepted the idea of “transcendental” responsibility to the Emperor and, in turn, all of Japan. Its responsibilities therefore “transcended” the Diet.
Meiji Era Political Parties • Two of the oligarchs, Ito Hirobumi and Yamagata Aritomo, continued to exercise power through protégés. • Ito Hirobumi established Seiyukai to gain political power in the Diet. It became the ruling party with Katsura Taro (Yamagata’s protégée) and Saionji Kimmochi (Ito’s protégée) serving alternately as prime ministers. • Hara Kei became the organizational force behind Seiyukai. He built the party through pork politics and patronage in the provinces and bureaucracy.
Late Meiji Economic Power • The Sino & Russo-Japanese wars stimulated the Japanese economy, especially heavy industry. • By 1906, Japan could produce ships comparable in size and quality to any in the world. The Japanese were advancing in other areas as well such as Electrical Engineering. Light industry continued to flourish. • The ills of early industrialization led to labor unrest. • The Ashio Copper Mines strike of 1909 involved violent outbreaks. Military force was used to quell them. • The Tokyo Streetcar strike of 1911-12 caused great public inconvenience during the New Years season and led to many of the strike leaders being arrested.. • The Zaibatsu was the major beneficiary of economic growth.
Emperor Taisho • The death of Emperor Meiji deeply affected the Japanese. He was succeeded by Yoshihito (reign name Taisho). • Taisho suffered from meningitis which he contracted within three weeks of birth. It left him both physically and mentally impaired. • Taisho was succeeded by Hirohito, the Showa Emperor, in 1926. His reign was the longest of all Japanese emperors, 1926 to 1989. Emperor Taisho (r.1912-26)
Taisho Democracy • When a reduction in government spending in 1912 forced a choice between Seiyukai’s domestic program and two new army divisions, the army withdrew its minister, forcing the resignation of the Prime Minister Saionji. • Public outrage was expressed in mass demonstrations by the “protect constitutional government” movement. • Katsura Taro’s attempt to organize a cabinet apart from Seiyukai support led to a no confidence vote. A majority in the Diet had for the first time overthrown a cabinet.
The Taisho Imperialism • Through its 1902 alliance with Britain, Japan was drawn into WWI on the side of the Allies against Germany. In that capacity, Japan seized German holdings on the Shandong Peninsula plus the Mariana (except Guam), Caroline and Marshall Islands. • Emboldened by its victories in the Sino & Russo- Japanese Wars, Japan took the opportunity of WWI to consolidate its position in China through the Twenty-One Demands in 1915.
Open Door Policy • The Open Door policy was annunciated by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay in 1899. The key provisions were maintenance of Chinese territorial integrity and freedom of trade. • The Open Door policy came into play for the first time during negotiation of the Twenty-One Demands. The U.S. took the position that should the Open Door be violated by any agreement forced upon China, it would simply fail to recognize that agreement. This was the first time the U.S. employed the threat of non-recognition.
Harbingers of Future Conflict • The interests and sentiments of the Open Door ultimately put the U.S. and Japan on a collision course. This situation was aggravated by: • Failure of the the U.S., Canada and Australia to affirm racial equality at the Paris Peace Conference for fear it would lead to Japanese emigration. • Yellow Peril propaganda, the San Francisco School Board decision to segregate Japanese (1906), the California Alien Land Law (1913), the Ozawa Case (1922) and the Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924. 1899 Political Cartoon
Shidehara Diplomacy • Shidehara Kijuro was Japan’s representative at the Washington Conference and Foreign Minister, 1924-27 and 1929-31. • He believed that Japan’s future lay in peaceful economic expansion. His approach was supported by Japanese business interest. • Thru his efforts Japan became a member of the League of Nations and returned sovereignty over Shandong to China while retaining its economic interests there. Shidehara Kijuro (1872-1951)
Washington Disarmament Conference • This nine-power conference (1921-22) had several significant results: • The Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty established an equilibrium in the Pacific through a fixed ration of capital ships: U.S. & Britain – 5; Japan – 3; France and Italy – 1.75. • The Four- Power Pact replaced Japan’s alliance with Britain. • The Nine-Power Treaty which acceded to the Open Door. • Japan agreed to withdraw its forces from Siberia.
The Showa Restoration • The Showa restoration was promoted by ultra-nationalist to restore imperial power and Japan’s proper place among world powers. • Domestically, the Japanese population was dissatisfied with economic conditions due to the affects of the depression of 1929. • Ultra-nationalist believed that the semi-democratic government of the Taisho era had capitulated to the west in agreeing to arms limitations. • The treatment of Japanese in the west was a highly emotional issue Hirohito, the Emperor Showa (r.1926-1989)
Super Nationalism • The super nationalist believed that party government obtruded on the imperial will, advocated direct imperial rule and violent action to achieve it. • The Cherry Society planned an unsuccessful military coup in 1931. • In 1932, the head of Mitsui was assassinated. • The May 15 (1932) a raid was staged in Tokyo, killing the prime minister. • In 1936, the Imperial Way faction seized the center of Tokyo and killed a number of prominent leaders.
Manchukuo (1932-45) • In 1931, the Japanese Kwantung army seized Mukden. By the end of 1932, the Japanese had invaded all of Manchuria. • In 1932, Henry Puyi (the last Qing Emperor) was declared regent of the “independent” state of Manchukuo. • The adjoining Chinese province of Jehol was invaded in 1933. The dark red area was Manchuria in 1931.
Early Events • A long string of events led to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. • Acquisition of Russian railway, port and territorial rights thru the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). • Annexation of Korea (1910). • Increased rail and territorial privileges thru the Twenty-One Demands (1915). • Japanese investment in Manchuria and China. • The rise of extreme militarism. • The assassination of Zhang Zuolin (1928). • The Mukden Incident (1931) in defense of the South Manchurian Railroad.
Economic Interests • Japan coveted the resources of Manchuria to achieve the level of economic independence necessary to wage total war. • In 1928, Manchuria’s total agricultural production was valued at $650,000,000. • By 1931, 63% of Japan’s investment in China was in Manchuria. After the conquest of Manchuria, the Japanese turned it into an industrial powerhouse. • Shanghai was the other area of major Japanese investment, accounting for 25%.
Zhang Zuolin • The rail car carrying Zhang Zuolin back to Mukden from Beijing was blown up by the Japanese on June 3, 1928. • Zhang Zuolin was the warlord who controlled Manchuria plus four provinces in northern China from 1911 to 1928 as an essentially independent state. The Japanese were concerned that he had allied himself with Chang Kai-shek and the nationalist. • He was succeeded by Zang Xueliang, his oldest son who came to be known as the Young Marshall. Zhang Zuolin (1873-1928)
Emperor PuYi • PuYi was invited to become chief executive of the Great Manchu Nation in 1932. Changchun was designated as the new capital. • PuYi was declared emperor of Manchukuo in 1934 with the era name of Kang De. He held that title until 1945. • Sadly PuYi was nothing more than a puppet ruler of a puppet state. The U.S., Britain and Nationalist China never recognized the government of Manchukuo. “Henry” PuYi (1906-1967)
The Red Army • Zhu De joined Mao Zedong in 1928 on the Hunan-Jiangxi border. Together they developed the prototype Red Army. Zhu De was the military commander; Mao was the political commissar. • By 1931, they proclaimed the Chinese Soviet Republic with the agrarian policy of “land to the tiller.” • Jiangxi became the Communist power center, replacing Shanghai and reflecting a major shift in doctrine. Zhu De (1886-1976)
The Long March • To crush the growing CCP strongholds, Chiang Kai-shek conducted five annihilation campaigns. The first four failed. However, the fifth in 1933 created an untenable situation for the CCP. • Communist forces broke out in 1934 and began an 8,000 mile march to Shaanxi. • One hundred thousand persons started the Long March. Only 10% reached the new base of Yan’an in 1935. The red-hatched areas are Communist enclaves. Those marked with “X’s” were overrun by GMD forces. The dotted lines show retreat routes.
Expansion South of the Wall • Conflict with Japan extended south of the Great Wall in 1932. • A Japanese Buddhist Priest was killed in a brawl in Shanghai. Apologies, promises of indemnities, etc., were to no avail. The Japanese bombarded both Shanghai and Nanjing in reprisal. • In Manchuria, the Young Marshall’s forces lost Harbin and were forced to retreat to south of the wall. Significant numbers changed allegiance and stayed behind.