Table of Contents Module 1: Pertinent legislation Module 2: Definitions & Terminology Module 3: Examples of confined space injuries &/or fatalities Module 4: Overview of confined space hazards; hazard identification & assessment process Module 5: Overview of control methods Module 6: Methods of analyzing, eliminating, & controlling confined space hazards Module 7: Personal protective equipment / Life Saving Equipment Module 8: Emergency planning
Table of Contents (cont.) Module 9: Legislated documentation requirements Module 10: Oxygendeficiency & enrichment Module 11: Flammable gases / hot Work Requirements Module 12: Toxic atmospheres that are Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health. Module 13: OccupationalExposureLimits Module 14: Accident Incident Reporting Module 15: Hands on: • PPE/rescue equipment • Sample permits/ Hazard Assessment • Gas monitors
Why Train? • Often fatal consequences - catastrophic • Often multiple injuries • Frequency of incidents is too high • Would be rescuers become victims • Iceberg principle - lots of incidents • General lack of awareness & training • “never happen to me” mentality Aim for Excellence NOT Stupidity!
Training ALL workers who work within confined spaces must receive specific training. Examples of additional training in addition to confined space training: • Gas Testing • Fall Protection training for vertical entry • First aid/rescue planning ALL workers with related duties, such as rescue workers, supervisors, attendants and “fire watch" personnel must also receive training specific to confined spaces. Training records must be kept. Refresher training to be considered.
What are Confined Spaces in Schools? 4 questions need to be asked… • an enclosed or partially enclosed space? • is it designed or intended for human occupancy? • Does it have restricted means of access & egress? • Can it become hazardous to a person entering it as a result of: (i) its design, construction, location or atmosphere, or (ii) the materials or substances in it, or (iii) any other conditions relating to it. Needs to meet all of these criteria
Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a confined space ?
Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a confined space ?
Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a confined space ?
Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a potentially hazardous space?
Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a confined space ?
Apply the 4 Criteria Is this a confined space ? Trenches & excavations can be confined spaces, if there is a likelihood of hazardous gases, engulfment and/or the lack of oxygen.
Legislation September, 2009 Section 511. Confined Space Entry (1) An employer shall assess the work area to determine whether it contains confined spaces. (2) "confined space" means an enclosed or partially enclosed space that (a) is not designed or intended for human occupancy except for the purpose of performing work; (b) has restricted means of access and egress; and (c )may become hazardous to a person entering it as a result of (i ) its design, construction, location or atmosphere, (ii) the materials or substances in it, or (iii) any other conditions relating to it. (3) A worker shall not work in a confined space after January 1, 2013 unless he or she has completed a confined space entry program prescribed by the commission. (4) An employer shall inform a worker who may have to work in a Confined space of a hazard by posting signs or other equally effective means of advising of the existence of and dangers posed by confined spaces.
Legislation Legislation (cont.) Section 512. Corrective precautions (1) Upon first entering a confined space, a worker shall assume the space is hazardous until the contrary is demonstrated. (2) An employer shall ensure that a worker does not enter a confined space until (a) an adequate assessment of the hazards related to the confined space has been carried out; (b) a source containing a hazardous substance leading to the confined space is safely and completely blocked off or disconnected; (c) a test required under subsection (11) has been completed; (d) the worker is qualified to safely enter and perform dutieswithin the confined space; (e) a written work permit documenting the tests and safety precautions has been completed (f) a set of written safe work procedures has been developed and a worker has been instructed in these procedures. (3) The assessment referred to in paragraph (2)(a) shall be recorded in writing and shall consider, with respect to each confined space, (a) the hazards that may exist due to the design, construction, location, use or contents of the confined space; and (b) the hazards that may develop while work is done inside the confined space.
Legislation (cont.) (4) The record of the assessment may be incorporated into an entry permit. (5) Where 2 or more confined spaces are of similar construction and present the same hazards, their assessments may be recorded in a single document, but each confined space shall be clearly identified in the assessment. (6) The employer shall appoint a person with adequate knowledge, training and experience to carry out the assessment and shall maintain a record containing details of the person’s knowledge, training and experience. (7) The assessment shall contain the name of the person who carries out the assessment. (8) The person shall sign and date the assessment and provide it to the employer.
Legislation (cont.) (10)The employer shall ensure that the assessment is reviewed as often as necessary to ensure that the assessment referred to in paragraph (2)(a) remains current. (11)Appropriate tests for harmful vapours, gasses, fumes, mists, dusts or explosive substances and oxygen deficiency shall be made and recorded (a) before entry into the confined space; (b) after an interruption in the work procedures; and (c) at appropriate intervals. (12)Where a test made under subsection (11) indicates an unsafe condition, the confined space shall be ventilated or cleaned or both and periodically retested to ensure that: (a) the oxygen content is between 20% and 22%; (b) the concentration of flammable substances is maintained below 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL ) of that substance or substances; and (c) a worker's exposure to harmful substances is maintained at acceptable levels in accordance the TLVs established by ACGIH.
Legislation Legislation (cont.) (13) Where gas tests indicate harmful or explosive substances and it is not feasible to provide a safe respirable atmosphere, an employer shall ensure that : (a) entrants wear respiratory and personal protective equipment appropriate to the hazards; and (b) where a flammable or explosive gas or liquid is present all sources of ignition are controlled or eliminated. (14) Where control measures cannot be implemented, a worker shall leave the confined space. (15) Gas tests made shall be performed by a person who has been adequately trained in the proper use of testing equipment. (16) Equipment used in testing and monitoring shall be calibrated and monitored according to the manufacturer's instructions. (17) The completed permit shall be available at the time of entry to all authorized personnel by posting it at the entry portal or by another effective means.
Legislation Legislation (cont.) Section 513. Work procedures (1) If an entrant may be exposed to a harmful atmosphere or may become entrapped by material (a) wears appropriate retrieval equipment for rescue; and (b) has a life-line attached to the retrieval equipment which is tended at all times by a person, stationed outside the entrance able to effect rescue. (2) the use of a lifeline is not required where an obstruction or other condition makes its use impractical or unsafe but, in that case, an employer shall implement procedures to ensure the safety of the worker.
Legislation (cont.) (3) Entrants require attendants (b) stationed outside and near i) the entrance to the confined space, or if there is more than 1 entrance ii) near the one that best allows the attendant to perform their duties; (c) is in continuous communication with the worker as per safe work procedure; and (d) is provided with a device for summoning an adequate rescue response. (4) An attendant shall not enter a confined space and shall, in accordance with the required safe work procedure, (a) monitor the safety of the worker; (b) provide assistance to entrants and rescuers; and (c) summon an adequate rescue response where required.
Legislation (cont.) Section 514. Entry into confined space A confined space shall be entered only where (a) opening is sufficient to allow safe passage of a person wearing PPE/safety equipment; (b) mechanical equipment in the confined space is (i) disconnected from its power source, and (ii) locked out and tagged; (c) pipes & other supply lines with hazardous contents are blanked off; (d) measures, where appropriate, to continuously ventilate space; (e) liquid / free-flowing solid capable of drowning / entrapping have been removed; (f) adequate explosion-proof illumination is provided where appropriate; and (g) adequate barriers are erected to prohibit unauthorized entry.
OHS-ACT Right to Refuse to Work 45. (1) A worker may refuse to do work that the worker has reasonable grounds to believe is dangerous to his or her health or safety, or the health and safety of another person at the workplace (a) until remedial action has been taken by the employer to the worker's satisfaction; (b) until the committee or worker health and safety representative has investigated the matter and advised the worker to return to work; or (c) until an officer has investigated the matter and has advised the worker to return to work.
Owner Requirements Outside Contractors • program should meet regulations • program needs to be reviewed • Inform them of your hazard assessment • Ensure they use sop’s/permits • Emergency response planning • Periodically audit • incident reporting system – “incidents don’t become accidents”
Common Terms Methane in Air Competent - in relation to a person, means adequately qualified, suitably trained and with sufficient experience to safely perform work without supervision or with only a minimal degree of supervision; Explosive atmosphere - means an atmosphere that (a) contains a substance in a mixture with air, under atmospheric conditions and at a concentration between the substance's lower explosive limit and upper explosive limit, Hazard - means a situation, condition or thing that may be dangerous to the safety or health of workers; Too rich UEL 15 % LEL 5 % Too lean
Common Terms (cont.) Risk – likelihood hazard becomes incident; based on severity, frequency, duration, etc Hot work - means work in which a flame is used or sparks or other sources of ignition may be produced, including • cutting, welding, burning, air gouging, riveting, drilling, grinding, and chipping, • using electrical equipment not classified for use in a hazardous location, and • introducing a combustion engine to a work process;
Flash point: Minimum T of which a liquid fuel is heated to give off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air (i.e burns) Ignition T: Minimum T req’d for substance to be heated to achieve self sustaining combustion independent of ignition source Flammability Terms
Fire Triangle-Tetrahedron Fire triangle Ignition source Lower flammable limit/flammable range Flash Point/Vapor Pressure Vapor density
Lowest conc. of flammable gas/vapor, expressed in % volume in air, that will burn or explode in presence of ignition source. Below this level, atmosphere is too lean to burn. LEL is lowest part of the flammable range; upper limit is the UEL Lower Limit (LEL) Methane in Air Too rich UEL 15 % LEL 5 % Too lean
Flammable Liquids • Flammable vapors exist above volatile liquids • such vapors are heavier than air and settle in low spots; travel large distances & ignite • Gas testing not enough; remove all liquids, residues, sludge • MSDS: look at flash point, vapor pressure, LEL, boiling point, vapor density
Section 515 – Explosive Atmospheres Worker not to stay in Confined Space if: • > 25%LEL for inspection only; no source of ignition; • > 10%LEL - cold work; • > 5% LEL &/or > 23% O2 during hot work;
Vapor Density Air = 1 Light gases hydrogen Ammonia, methane Air, carbon monoxide, nitrogen propane argon, carbon dioxide Chlorine, benzene, gasoline Heavy gases
Hazard Identification • System to ID all hazards existing in absence of controls; control minimizes risk • Every CS hazardous unless determined otherwise by risk assessment • Take into account: • Routine & non-routine activities in & out of space • Facilities & activities of adjacent spaces/workplace • Contents and supply lines into/out of the space
Hazard Identification Process • Engulfment or entrapment by liquids/materials • Potential for fire or explosion, oxygen deficiency • Biological hazards – crawl spaces • Physical hazards - Temperature - Noise - Humidity - Lighting - Ergonomics • Flammable residues - fire resistant coveralls ineffective • Toxic hazards – lead, asbestos, VOC’s, etc
Risk Assessment • Eliminate hazard • Substitute hazardous materials, processes, equipment • Engineering controls • Administrative controls • PPE-selection, use & maintenance Best Option Least Preferred option
Classification of Confined Spaces Most confined spaces are designed to hold substances such as liquids, gases, and loose materials, or to house equipment. Though they come in many sizes and shapes, most can be classified in one of two ways: 1. Spaces that are open-topped and have depth • pits • well • bins 2. Spaces with narrow openings • pipes • utility vaults • Attics • HVAC
Confined Space Entry Definitions Entrantis the person who enters a confined space. Attendant stays outside the confined space, monitors the space, responsible for assisting the entrant, summons assistance in emergency. Safety representative(or entry supervisor) is the competent person who assesses the hazards, lists necessary equipment and control measures, controls Confined Space Entry Permit process.
Attendant • Remain alert outside space • summon help if needed but do not enter • Consider activities outside space • Maintain 2 way communication • Know hazards posed & work requirements • assess conditions/changes that may impact entrants • Ensure controls measures working properly • Initiate emergency procedures as per sop • Perform non-entry emergency rescue if safe to do so
Entrant • Remain alert at all times • Aware of all potential hazards • Aware of symptoms & warning signs of exposure • Report concerns to attendant • Exit immediately if conditions warrant, alarms sound, or if directed You have a right to be made aware of all potential hazards
Hazard Assessment Form • Assessment must be carried out by a qualified person, and form completed • Must identify existing and potential hazards • Must contain name of person performing assessment • Must be signed and dated • Must be copied to Occupational Health and Safety Committee • Must be recorded and maintained in filing system • Has been separated into sections for ease of use
Assessment Form Sections • Communications • Ventilation • Adverse temperatures • Noise / Vibration • Chemical Hazards • Other Considerations • Access into the confined space • Internal configuration and features of the confined space • Electrical hazards • Mechanical hazards • Engulfment Hazards • External Hazards
1. Access into Confined Space • Entrance/Exit Accessibility and Configuration • Entrance/exit easily accessible? • Type: Round, Oval, Square, Other? • Vertical Entry/Exit • Stairs, Fixed ladder, Portable ladder, Other? • Condition? • Tripod to be used? • Horizontal Entry/Exit • Elevated entry/exit? • Work platform provided?
2. Internal Configuration and Features Use & Shape of a space can create hazardous conditions: • Low Ceilings? • Walk in • Erect • Stooped • Head Hazards? • Footing inside space? • Narrow areas entrapping entrant/rescuer • Sloping surface • Uneven surfaces & bends create challenges for attendant to communicate Need to protect openings with barricades
2. Internal Configuration (Cont.) • Other Internal features of space? • Wet or slippery surfaces • Poor lighting • Sharp objects • Mold • Pipelines going through the space? • Use of ladders & scaffolding? Need to protect openings with barricades
3. Electrical Hazards • Possible contact with energized conductors? • Controls: Lockout procedures, GFCI’s, grounding & bonding, double insulated tools • Hazardous sources: • - Broken/energized lighting & power • - Damaged cords • - Welding equipment not grounded/bonded • Wet surfaces confound problems • Explosion/vapor proof lighting may • need to be assessed CSA C22.1 Canadian Electrical Code Part 1 Safety Standard for Electrical Installations, Clause 18 “Hazardous Locations”
4. Mechanical Hazards • Unguarded mechanical equipment • Examples: • Moving/rotating belts or chains, • gears, • paddles, • blades, • shafts, • pinch points Lockout / Tag-out procedures required
5. Engulfment Hazards • Chemical? • Sludge/sewage? • Other hazardous liquid (water)? Lock out and/or Isolate: physically prevent and/or disconnect pipes & energy sources by applying controls: • Such as: • Locks, • Tags, • Blanks & blinds • Double block & bleed
6. External Hazards • Traffic hazard? • Parking lot (loading area/parking spaces in vicinity)? • Precipitation? • Overhead electrical wires • Spill or possibility of objects falling into opening?
7. Ventilation • Space has configuration that will hamper ventilation/purging? • Convoluted space? • Large volume? • Other?