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Using Primary Sources in Lesson Planning. Maria Abalos Christopher Van Dyke. Objectives. By the end of this session, participants will be able to: Determine the credibility and bias of primary sources. Use primary sources to teach state performance objectives. What are primary sources?.
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Using Primary Sources in Lesson Planning Maria Abalos Christopher Van Dyke
Objectives By the end of this session, participants will be able to: • Determine the credibility and bias of primary sources. • Use primary sources to teach state performance objectives.
What are primary sources? • Materials produced at specific periods in history. • Created by a witness or participant of an event.
Types of Primary Sources • Historical documents • Political cartoons • Firsthand accounts – letters, diaries • Photographs, art and artifacts • Posters and newspapers • Maps
Sheltered Strategies for Social Studies • Provide materials in native language • Work in partners or small groups • Use graphic organizers • Make connections to previous learning • Use nontraditional methods of assessment
Why use primary sources? • Allows students to examine evidence firsthand • Builds analytical skills in students • Comprehensible input – English Language Learners need visuals
What skills are used when analyzing primary sources? • Describing how point of view affects evidence • Analyzing the motives and intended audience of the originator • Interpreting historical sources and recognizing what contradictions and other limitations exist • Comparing, contrasting and synthesizing multiple perspectives • Participating in the process of history through debate
Websites for Primary Documents • National Archiveshttp://www.archives.govEducators & Students, Online Exhibitshttp://www.archives.gov/exhibits/powers_of_persuasion/powers_of_persuasion_home.htmlhttp://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/fed-indian-policy/ • Digital Historyhttp://www.digitalhistory.uh.eduPrimary Sources, eXplorations • History Mattershttp://historymatters.gmu.edu • AmDocshttp://www.vlib.us/amdocs
Websites for Primary Documents (continued) • The Authentic History Centerhttp://authentichistory.com • Archiving Early Americahttp://www.earlyamerica.com • Library of Congresshttp://www.loc.govAmerican Memory, Exhibitions • HistoryCentral.comhttp://www.historycentral.com
Primary Documents and ELL Students • Google in Spanish (Mexico) & for Kids http://www.google.com.mxhttp://espanol.paraninos.yahoo.com • Yahoo in Spanish (Telemundo)http://espanol.yahoo.com • U.S. Constitution & Amendments in Spanishhttp://www.constitutioncenter.org/explore/TheU.S.Constitution/Enespanol.shtml • Google Language Toolshttp://www.google.com/language_tools
Strategies for using Historical Documents • Identify the document. • Identify when it was written. • Identify the purposes of the document. • Find and look up any unfamiliar words. • Identify the main idea of each section. • Tell how the document reflects what is going on during the time period.
Strategies for using Political Cartoons • Find each symbol and tell what it stands for. • Identify the main character. • Tell what the main character is doing. • Read all the text in the cartoon. • Read the caption, or brief description of the picture. • Describe how the cartoon reflects what is going on during the time period.
Strategies for using Photographs and Art • Identify the artist/photographer. • Determine the setting by describing the surroundings and climate. • Pay attention to detail. • Find objects and determine what they were used for. • Read the caption for historical context. • Draw conclusions about what life might have been like during the time period.
Strategies for using Firsthand Accounts • Identify the title and author. • Identify the main idea of the account. • Determine the setting of the account. • Determine the author’s role in the event and his/her opinion of the event. • Explain how this firsthand account gives information about the time period.
Firsthand Accounts Primary Sources: Letter from Manuel Reyes to Alice McGrath Manuel ReyesBox 69597San Quinten, CalifJuly 12, 1943 Dear Alice, Recived your very nice letter and was glad to hear from you. Well I am getting along fine, and I am in good health. I am still working at the C.P.A. we will finish with that work this week some time. After I am out of that job I am going back to the tailor shop, there I have a good office job, working in the cutting room. I have my oun desk, and a radio, all I do is type and keep the stock in order, and also the filles. But when I don't have anything to do I help at the cutting table, cutting out suites. Well to change the I am very glad to hear that the pepole out side are still helping us. Boys, I cant tell you how glad I am to know that the pepole out side are helping us. I recived the book that was written about our case, I think it was a good idea to let the people know what really happened in out trail. Well to change the subject, we had a good time here on the 4th of July, we seen the figths that rae put on for the boys, it was pretty good five of the boys, fougth, but only two of them won, the best figth was put on by Smiles. Well any way I had a good time. I hope you had a good time also. Well I am runing out of words, so ill close now, so until I hear from you again, I remain yours trulyManuel Reyes PS Give my Regards to all of the Committee.(Excuse the typing) http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/zoot/
Strategies for using Advertisements (Posters & Propaganda) • Look at the title or slogan. • Look at the artwork. • Determine the setting. • Determine the audience. • Read the caption. • Determine what is being promoted and why.
Evaluating Propaganda • Institute for Propaganda Analysis (IPA) • http://www.propagandacritic.com/ • 7 propaganda devices: • name-calling technique • glittering generality • transfer • plain-folks technique • Testimonial device • band wagon • fear appeal
Propaganda • A woman--someone who could resemble the viewer’s neighbor, sister, wife, or daughter--was shown on a "wanted" poster as an unwitting murderess. • At least one viewer voiced objection to the choice of a female model. A letter from a resident of Hawaii to the Office of War Information reads, in part, "American women who are knitting, rolling bandages, working long hours at war jobs and then carrying on with `women’s work` at home--in short, taking over the countless drab duties to which no salary and no glory are attached, resent these unwarranted and presumptuous accusations which have no basis in fact, but from the time-worn gags of newspaper funny men." Wanted! For Murder by Victor Keppler, 1944NARA Still Picture Branch(NWDNS-208-PMP-91)
Activity • With a partner, choose a performance objective from the handout. • Choose a primary source. • List 3 activities using the primary source to teach the PO. • Using Bloom’s Taxonomy question starters, list 3 questions you could use with the primary source.
Additional Resources • Educational Materials Center – bibliography • National Archives – document analysis worksheets