1 nanometer = 0.001 micrometer 1 micrometer = 0.001 millimeter So 1 nm = 0.000001 mm
Chromosome Nucleosome DNA double helix Coils Supercoils Histones
ghr.nlm.nih.gov www.accessexcellence.org Nucleic acids (DNA & RNA) - a group of polymers made of nucleotide monomers that…. Functions= 1.stores hereditary information by 2. instructing the building of proteins Ex. DNA= Deoxyribonucleic Acid RNA= Ribonucleic Acid Double helix = DNA’s twisted ladder shape
http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu 4 Nucleotides (monomers) A=Adenine bond w/ 2 hydrogen bonds T=Thymine G=Guanine bond w/ 3 hydrogen bonds C=Cytosine
mhhe.com msu.edu Parts of Nucleotide (monomer)= • Sugar • Phosphate ladder sides • Nitrogen base (4 types; A, T, G, C) ladder steps DNA Code = recipe for making proteins stored in sequence (order) of nucleotide monomers like letters for word meanings; CAT vs TAC
jonahprobell.com/famous_photos Structure Determined by… James Watson and Francis Crick with the evidence from Rosalind Franklin in 1953
www.sciencephoto.cm DNA Forms (wound) Genome Chromatin (unwound)
Genome = full set of chromosomes in nucleus (46 for humans; 23 from each parent) Chromosome = One strand of DNA that coils into an X during cell division. Each contains many distinctive genes. Chromatin =Loose uncoiled DNA for access to genes Gene =A section of a chromosome that codes for one protein; includes start & stop instructions Nucleotide Monomer = Building block of DNA made of a sugar, phosphate and nitrogen base (4 kinds) Analogy Library one book open book one recipe in book one letter DNA Forms Definitions
Evolutionary Importance All species have same DNA structure & same DNA recipe code translation into protein All species use DNA as molecule of inheritance (you get your genes from your ancestors) = all species have a common ancestor (evolution). maddoxdna.com boards.ign.com
Replication = Process of copying DNA to make 2 identical copies • When? Right before cell division (mitosis) • Why? Give new cells a DNA copy
www.britannica.com Semi-Conservative process • Semi-conservative- one half is old DNA and one half is the copy. • What is made? Identical copies of chromosomes (sister chromatids)
http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de Steps of Replication • Helicase enzyme unzips hydrogen bonds • DNA polymerase add free nucleotides to one side • Ligase checks/ fixes errors and glues things together
faculty.irsc.edu Protein Synthesis
http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/aminoacids/dna1.html accessexcellence.org http://www.biologyreference.com/Mo-Nu/Nucleotides.html
What is the structure in the box called? What is the group of polymers it belongs to? Which structure is the deoxyribose sugar? The order of them from top to bottom is T-A-G-C. What would be the order of the complementary strand? A B C
The entire molecule is called The monomer in the circle is called a
What is the name of the entire process demonstrated in the illustration? What are the objects labeled A? How do the two strands compare when this process is complete? When in the cell cycle does this process take place? A B C
What is the name of the entire process demonstrated in the illustration? What are the objects labeled A? During which phase of the cell cycle does this process take place? This process happens in preparation for cell division called A B C
http://www.histol.chuvashia.com/atlas-en/cytol-en.htm B A C Which lettered cell is in prophase? Which lettered cell has sister chromatids splitting?
A What phase is this cell in? What are the structures label A?
B C A uic.edu All the structures collectively in box A are called…. Structures B are called? Structure C is called? The purpose of structure C is?