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A New Kind of War

A New Kind of War

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A New Kind of War

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  1. A New Kind of War • “One out of every four men who went out to the World War did not come back again…and of those who came back, many were maimed and blind and some are mad”

  2. The Western Front • Germany’s plans for a quick defeat of France did not work • What was this plan called? • Reason for failure: • Russia mobilized faster than expected • Germans shift troops to the east--weakening forces in the west • French and British troops push back German advances at the Battle of the Marne

  3. The Western Front

  4. Multi-Front War

  5. Stalemate on the Western Front • Both dig trenches to protect their armies from enemy fire • Conflict turns into a long deadly stalemate • Battle lines remain unchanged in France for four years • Massive human cost to break the stalemate

  6. Verdun -- February, 1916 • German offensive • 11 month struggle • Each side had 500,000 killed or missing

  7. The Somme --- July, 1916 • Allied offensive • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months

  8. Why was control over the Adriatic, Mediterranean, and North Seas significant during WWI?

  9. It was essential to forcing a naval blockade of the Central Powers

  10. Trench Warfare

  11. British Trenches German Trenches

  12. View of Trench from Above

  13. Artillery Line • The artillery line was where the big field guns were located. They were used to fire shells at the enemy. The noise from a barrage of guns was deafening.

  14. View of Trench from Above

  15. Support Trench • The support trenches provided a second line of defense in case the front line trench was taken by the enemy. They also contained first aid stations and kitchens to ensure men in the front line had medical treatment and hot food.

  16. View of Trench from Above

  17. Communication Trench • The communication trenches were used to move between the front and rear trenches. They were also used to transport injured men to the field hospitals.

  18. View of Trench from Above

  19. Machine Gun Nest • The machine gun nest was where the machine guns were located. They were manned by two or three soldiers who fired on any advancing enemy.

  20. View of Trench from Above

  21. Bunker • The underground bunkers were used to store food, weapons and artillery. They were also used as command centers and had a telephone link to report information and receive instructions. The underground bunkers also offered the men protection from fire and the elements.

  22. View of Trench from Above

  23. Traverse • Trenches were not built in straight lines. This was so that if the enemy managed to get into the front line trench they would not have a straight firing line along the trench. Trenches were therefore built with alternating straight and angled lines. The traverse was the name given to the angled parts of the trench.

  24. View of Trench from Above

  25. Front Line Trench • The front line trenches were generally about 8 feet deep and between 4 and 6 feet wide. Soldiers would spend around a week in the front line trench then would spend a week in the rear trenches or a rest camp. Life at the front line was not pleasant; soldiers were liable to be hit by enemy fire or sometimes by their own artillery.

  26. View of Trench from Above

  27. Barbed Wire • Barbed wire was used extensively in the trench warfare of world war one. It was laid, several rows deep, by both sides to protect the front line trench. Wire breaks were placed at intervals to allow men access to no man's land.

  28. View of Trench from Above

  29. Listening Post • Listening posts were used to monitor enemy activity. They were usually approximately 30 yards in front of the front line trench.

  30. Cross Section of a Front Line Trench

  31. Sand Bags • Sandbags were used to protect the soldiers from enemy rifle fire. They were, however, less effective in the event of shell fire. Sandbags were also sometimes placed in the bottom of the trench to soak up water.

  32. Cross Section of a Front Line Trench

  33. Bolt Hole • The bolt hole or dug out was built into the sides of the trench. The earth was shored up with wood and the roof often lined with corrugated iron. The men used the bolt hole for protection, eating and sleeping.

  34. Cross Section of a Front Line Trench

  35. Trench Board • The trench board known as the fire step was built about two to three feet above the floor of the trench. It enabled men to see over the wall of the trench and to fire on any enemy advance.

  36. Cross Section of a Front Line Trench

  37. Duck Board/Sump • To prevent the trenches from becoming waterlogged, a narrow drainage channel known as a sump would be built at the bottom of the trench. This would then be covered with wooden trench boards known as duck boards.

  38. Trench Foot • Soldiers who spent prolonged periods of time standing in waterlogged trenches were liable to suffer from frostbite and/or trench foot. To prevent trench foot, soldiers were instructed to change their socks frequently, wear waterproof footwear and to cover their feet with whale oil.

  39. Cross Section of a Front Line Trench

  40. Trench Block • A trench block was a wood and wire structure that was made to block the trenches and prevent the enemy from advancing through a trench system.

  41. Cross Section of a Front Line Trench

  42. Machine Guns • The machine gun was the most widely used weapon in world war one. The guns were very heavy and had to be supported on a tripod. They also required three or four men to operate them.