PSYC 200Week #2 Literature searches and APA style
Agenda • Roll call • Collect and discuss graded assignments • Revised syllabus • Catch-up (types of articles, sections of paper, etc.) • Literature Search Hints • In-text citations • References
Assignments Due • Reading assignment • APA ch 2 & 6 • Gram ch 2 (no p 29) • Essay Assignment #1 • Conference #1
Conference #1 Stats Stats workbook
Revised Syllabus on WebTycho • Changed due date of single-article summary from 9/17 to 9/23.
POPQUIZ https://docs.google.com/document/edit?id=17HT0s7XuJzw18bKbDGGH9To5dkafXfM5E1pN3x3mPYo https://docs.google.com/document/edit?id=1WjXazjhUS30XX0NKs7ENm3Teae2Cda5MPJqlj4vwmrI&hl=en#
Some General APA Information Catch-up from last week
Types of Articles • Empirical Studies – original research • Intro, method, results, discussion • Literature Reviews – evaluate published lit • Define problem, summarize previous studies, identify lit issues/gaps, suggest next steps • Use / summarize empirical data • Theoretical Articles – use published lit to advance theory • Trace theory development, expand/define constructs, compare/contrast theories, present new theory? • Rarely use empirical data • Methodological Articles – discuss research methods or analytical techniques • Use empirical data to demonstrate method • Case Studies – single person, group, etc. • Others • Brief reports, book reviews, etc.
Major Parts of APA Papers • Title Page • Contains title and authorship info • What are the 3 main parts of the title page? • Abstract • Summarizes the article • Text (or body) • Contains the text of the article • References • Any supporting documentation / articles used • Tables • Figures • Graphs, charts, photos, etc. • Appendices • Complete measures, screenshots, etc.
The MOST IMPORTANT paragraph in your paper. 1st point of contact for your reader. Rules for good abstract (APA pp 26-27, 41) Accurate Nonevaluative Coherent and readable Concise Word limits vary by journal: 150-250 words Our class: no more than 150 words Contents vary by article type (empirical, lit review, theory, methodological, case study). On page 2, word Abstract centered at top, single paragraph with no indent Abstract
See if you can find what’s wrong with the next 3 papers… Some actual mistakes
Literature Search Some more points about what to look for.
Literature Search Basics • What is it? • Process of finding previously published work the relates to or has inspired / provided background for your current work. • Why do it? • You’re not the first person to have your great idea. • On the shoulders of giants… • Cross-referencing
Peer-Review • What is it? • A process by which scientific or scholarly work is submitted to others in the field (i.e., peers) for their criticisms and comments. • Why does it matter? • Science is public • Accountability • Assurance
Peer-Review (cont’d) • Where to find peer-reviewed articles • Journals • Books (scholarly) • Where not to find peer-reviewed articles • Newspapers • Popular Science • American Psychologist • Cosmopolitan
Journals and Their Ranks • Not all journals are made the same • Top-Tier Journals • JAP (Journal of Applied Psychology) • JPSP (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology) • Academy of Management Journal • Journal of Social Psychology • Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology
Journals and Their Ranks • Not-so Top Tier (but not necessarily low quality) • Journal of Happiness Studies • Counseling and Values • Journal of Applied Social Psychology • Many others…
APA Style – Nice Body In-text citations
In-Text Citations • Indicate the source(s) (authors, articles, etc.) of a piece of information. • Frequently occur in the intro of a paper. • Use any time you quote, paraphrase, or otherwise use or discuss someone else’s idea in your writing. • If you don’t cite, you plagiarize (unless common knowledge).
To cite or not to cite… The Common Knowledge Test
To cite or not to cite? • The world is round • The world is 7926 miles in diameter. • Freud is the father of modern psychology • Many people struggle with loneliness. • Taking a survey on the internet is the same as on paper. • Washington had wooden dentures • Not cite • Cite (about.com) • Cite (an incorrect opinion—not fact) • Not cite (unless you have a source that backs you up) • Cite • Cite source of myth
Components of a Citation • Author(s) • Last name(s) only for citations • Year of publication • Page number, if you are using a direct quote • If the document is not paged, give paragraph number (para. 5)
One Author • First use: • Smith (1999) found that youth... • ...more likely to engage in substance use (Smith, 1999). • Second and subsequent use in same paragraph: • Smith also found that...... • However, Smith also found... • ...are at greater risk (Smith, 1999). • First in a new paragraph: • Smith (1999)...
Two Authors • First use: • Nation and Heflinger (2006) define • ...exposed to risk factors (Nation & Hiflinger, 2006). • Subsequent use: • Nation and Heflinger explain.... • ...risk factors are compounded (Nation & Heflinger, 2006) • First use in a new paragraph: • Nation and Heflinger (2006)
Three, Four, and Five Authors • First use: • De Kemp, Scholte, Overbeek, and Engels (2006) ... • ...related to increased delinquency (De Kemp, Scholte, Overbeek, & Engels, 2006) • Second use: • De Kemp et al. (2006)... • ...association with deviant peers (De Kemp et al., 2006) • Subsequent use: • De Kemp et al. found that.... • ...in youth (De Kemp et al., 2006). • First use in a new paragraph: • De Kemp et al. (2006)...
Six or More Authors • First use: • Jones et al. (2003) examined.... • ...are more likely to see a difference (Jones et al., 2003) • Subsequent use: • Jones et al. found • ...greater understanding (Jones et al., 2006) • First use in a new paragraph: • Jones et al. (2003)
Different Sources That Could Be Confused When Shortened • Jones, Jackson, Martin, Howard, and Simms (1999) Jones et al. (1999) • Jones, Madison, Howard, and Brown (1999) Jones et al. (1999) • Jones, Jackson, et al. (1999) • Jones, Madison, et al. (1999)
More Than One Source • ... interactions between youth and their parents (De Kemp, Scholte, Overbeck, & Engles, 2006; Mount & Steinberg, 1995; Walker-Barnes & Mason, 2001; Walker-Barnes & Mason, 2004). • The order of authors in parenthetical citations is alphabetical (identical to the reference page).
Secondary Sources • Citing a document implies that you HAVE READ the original work (APA, 2010) • Did you actually read the original reference? • Smith (1978) originally found that...is more likely (as cited in James & Andrews, 2001) • Don’t include Smith’s article on your reference page.
Quotations • When quoting from a source, “if the quotation comprises fewer than 40, incorporate it into text and enclose with double quotation marks” (APA, 2010, p. 170). • Quotes in the middle of a sentence have (p. #) directly after the quote
Quotations • Quotes with 40 or more words appear as an indented block. • The citation information follows the punctuation of the quote.
Other Citation Hints • Articles don’t say anything—authors do. • Don’t say, The article found that… • Do say, Jones (2010) found • Don’t overload your reader with citations. You should only be presenting ideas that are relevant to your topic. • Practice…
Practice 1 • Authors: • Seth D. Gosling • Orlando P. John • Kendra H. Craik • Robin Wright Robins • Year: 1998 • Situation: 1st parenthetical citation in paper (Gosling, John, Craik, & Robins, 1998)
Practice 1a • Authors: • Seth D. Gosling • Orlando P. John • Kendra H. Craik • Robin Wright Robins • Year: 1998 • Situation: 1st parenthetical citation in new paragraph (already cited in paper) (Gosling et al., 1998)
Practice 1b • Authors: • Seth D. Gosling • Orlando P. John • Kendra H. Craik • Robin Wright Robins • Year: 1998 • Situation: 2nd citation in paragraph, in-text Gosling et al. found…
Practice 2 • Authors: • Seth D. Gosling • Orlando P. John • Year: 1998 • Situation: 2nd citation in paragraph, in-text Gosling and John found…
Italicize, don’t italicize, period, abbreviate, parenthesize, period,pp.,hyphenate,Italicize, don’t italicize, period, abbreviate, parenthesize, period, pp., hyphenate, Italicize, don’t italicize, period, abbreviate, parenthesize, period, pp., hyphenate, Italicize, don’t italicize, period, abbreviate, parenthesize, period, pp., hyphenate, Formatting reference entries
Reference Page Format Rules • Put the word References centered at top of new page • Start references next • Each new reference is a new, hanging indent paragraph. • Place references in alphabetical order • Each citation must have reference and vice versa This is an example of a hanging indent paragraph. In Word, go to Paragraph, Special Indent, and select Hanging.
Components of a Reference • Author’s or authors’ name(s) • Year of publication • Article or Chapter Title • Journal or Book Title • Volume Number • Issue Number • Location of Publication • City, State or City, Country outside of US • DOI or web address or database name • Publisher Information
Journal Article Last name and initials. In parentheses, end with pd. Sentence caps, end in pd. • Author, A. A. • (YEAR). • Title of the journal article. • Title of The Journal, xx(#), pp-pp. • If retrieved electronically • doi:xxx.xxxxx.xx/xxx or • URL of journal home page Retrieved from http://www.journal.edu/ref/filename or • Retrieved from Name of database Title caps, italicized Italicized In parentheses Start pg., hyphen, end pg., period
Journal Article Exercise • Author: Tegan Best • Published in 2010 • Title of article: Effects of Name Referents on Childhood Experiences. • Title of journal: Journal of Alderian Psychopathology, volume 6, issue 7, pages 22 to 33 • Identifier: 10.1177/0093854806286208 Best, T. (2010). Effects of name referents on childhood experiences. Journal of Adlerian Psychopathology, 6(7), 22-33. doi:10.11….
An Entire Book • Author, A. A. • (YEAR). • Title of the book. • City, State or Country (outside of US): Publisher.
A Chapter in a Book • Author, A. A. • (YEAR). • Title of the chapter. • In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), • Title of the book (pp. xx-xx). • City, State: Publisher.
Technical or Research Report • Author, A. A. • (YEAR). • Title of report (Report No. XXXX). • City, State: Publisher or • Retrieved from Agency Site: http://agency.gov/location/filename
Summary and next steps • Literature Search Hints • Abstract • Citations • References • Assignments due next week: • Reading • Gram ch 3-6 • APA ch 7 (familiarize self, no need to read all) • Single-article review due date changed to 9/23/10 (directions available on WebTycho under Syllabus)