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Principles of Behavior Modification (PSY 333)

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  1. Principles of Behavior Modification (PSY 333) Gary L. Cates, Ph.D., NCSP

  2. Chapter 1: Introduction What is Behavior Modification?

  3. Why is behavior Important? • Many major problems are concerned with behavior. • It is more precise than general labels. • Conditions are generally a result of behavior. DO NOT CONFUSE THEM!

  4. What is Behavior? • Definition: Any glandular, chemical, electrical, or muscular response. • Anything a person does  • Dead man (or woman) Test • Do not confuse with products of behavior: e.g. Reward

  5. Talking about behavior • Operational Definition: Should be specific not general descriptions. - Free of circular logic: Depression vs. withdrawal

  6. What is Behavior Modification? • General Definition: Systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals covert and overt behaviors in order to help them function more fully in society.

  7. Characteristics of Behavior Modification • Emphasized defining and measuring behavior • Treatment focuses greatly on the environment. • Methods and rationales can be described precisely.

  8. Characteristics of Behavior Modification • Techniques are often applied by individuals in everyday life. - Applied not theoretical • Most techniques are based on research on learning • Emphasizes scientific method • Accountability is placed on everyone involved.

  9. Behavioral Assessment Definition: Collection and analysis of data to: a) identify and describe behavior b) identify possible causes of the behavior c) guide the selection of an appropriate behavioral treatment d) evaluate treatment outcome

  10. Misconceptions about Behavior modification • Rewards and reinforcement are nothing more than bribes. 2. It is drugs, psychosurgery, ECT 3. It only changes symptoms not underlying problems.

  11. Misconceptions about Behavior modification 4. Can be applied to simple, but not complex problems 5. Behavior analysts are cold non-empathetic people. • Behavior modifiers deal only with observable behavior. • Behavior modification is outdated.

  12. Chapter 2: Areas of Application

  13. Parenting and child management

  14. Education: From preschool to University

  15. Severe Problems • Development disabilities • Schizophrenia • Autism

  16. Clinical Settings

  17. Self-Management

  18. Medical and Health Care

  19. Gerontology

  20. Behavioral Community Psychology

  21. Business, Industry, and Government

  22. Sport Psychology

  23. Chapter 3: Positive Reinforcement

  24. Definition • Positive Reinforcer: stimulus or event that when presented immediately following a behavior causes the behavior to increase in frequency. • Immediate • Contingent • Increases behavior: Always!

  25. Example: Getting more I statements Before Behavior After (No R+) (Response) (R+) No M&M I Statement M&M

  26. Your Example: Before Behavior After (No R+) (Response) (R+) ? ? ?

  27. Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement A.   Motivating Operations -  Are you hungry enough? - Perhaps your full! B.    Reinforcer Size Naked desk dancing anyone?

  28. Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement C.    Reinforcer Immediacy

  29. Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement D.   Instructions: Make use of rules 1.      They speed up learning process if understood. 2.      Can help with delayed reinforcement 3.      R+ with instructions may help rule/instruction following.

  30. Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement E.    Contingent Vs. Non-contingent Reinforcement Increase “TARGET” responding F.     Weaning from artificial R+ and changing to natural R+

  31. Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement • Unintended Reinforcement- e.g. social, tangible

  32. Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement 1. Select the behavior to be increased • Should be specific • One that can be controlled naturally • Evaluate reinforcer effectiveness prior to treatment 

  33. Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement 2. Selecting a reinforcer • - readily available • - presented immediately • - Can be used many times without causing satiation. • - Requires only brief consumption • - Use a menu when possible

  34. Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement 3. Applying positive reinforcement - Explain plan before starting - Reinforce behavior immediately - Tell person what behavior is being reinforced

  35. Guidelines for the effective application of positive reinforcement 4. Weaning person from reinforcement program - Establish high levels of responding - Look for natural reinforcer - Plan follow-up assessments

  36. BEHAVIORAL CONTINGENCY TABLE (DRAFT 1) Present Stimulus Remove Stimulus Behavior Increases Positive Reinforcement (S+R) Behavior Decreases

  37. Principles of Behavior Modification Gary L. Cates, Ph.D., N.C.S.P.

  38. Chapter 13: Negative reinforcement Escape & Avoidance

  39. Negative Reinforcement • Immediate removal (escape) or prevention (avoidance) of an aversive stimulus contingent upon a behavior that increases the probability of that behavior in the future. • Remember: Reinforcement of any kind increases behavior!

  40. Negative Reinforcement: Escape BeforeBehaviorAfter Aversive You do something Aversive Condition Condition Present Not present

  41. Example: Negative Reinforcement (Escape) BeforeBehaviorAfter Getting wet Use an Umbrella Not getting wet from rain from rain

  42. Negative Reinforcement: Avoidance BeforeBehaviorAfter Aversive You do Aversive Condition Something Condition Will occur Does not occur

  43. Your Turn Come up with an example of how your behavior was negatively reinforced through escape and share with your peers.

  44. Example: Negative Reinforcement (Avoidance) BeforeBehaviorAfter You could If You get You do get wet an Umbrella not get wet

  45. Your Turn Come up with an example of how your behavior was negatively reinforced through avoidance and share with your peers.

  46. Major Pitfall Sick Social Cycle (Victim’s escape Model) Before BehaviorAfter Pos. R+ Baby has Baby cries Baby Gets no candy candy Neg. R+ Cry for Mom gives Baby Quits crying candy Candy