600 likes | 740 Vues
Where do babies come from?. Where Babies Come From. Pre-Assessment. Put cards on the board and have students put them in order. Put students in groups to do this and then pick a group to see if they are right.
E N D
Pre-Assessment Put cards on the board and have students put them in order. Put students in groups to do this and then pick a group to see if they are right. Cards = 1st trimester, 2nd trimester, 3rd trimester, Fertilization, Cells Divide, Sperm, Fetus, Birth, Egg, Uterus Lining, Zygote, Embryo, 46 Chromosomes, Birth Answer: Egg, Sperm, Fetilization,46 Chromosomes, Zygote, Cells Divide, Uterus Lining, Embryo, Fetus, 1st Trimester, 2nd Trimester, 3rd Trimester,Birth
What is Conception? • When Sperm and Egg meet and fertilization occur
What is Sperm? • The Males Sex cell which contains 23 chromosomes • Can carry eitherX or Y chromosome which determines the sex of the baby.
Challenges the sperm encounter in reaching the egg 20% defective 25% die immediately Acid environment of the female body Immune system attack them Fertilize any round object Don’t find the strands of mucin ½ go to the wrong fallopian tube Get stuck in the cell wall lining the fallopian tube Lose sense of direction
How many sperm reach the egg? 50 What keeps more than one sperm from entering the egg? A biochemical change in the egg creates a barrier
What is the Egg? • The women Sex cell that carries 23 chromosomes • Carries the X chromosome
Fertilization • Fertilization is the joining of the egg and sperm cell It takes place in the upper part of the fallopian tube
Where does the egg and sperm meet? • The sperm and egg meet in the fallopian tubes • After fertilization they travel down and attach to the uterus lining
Zygote • A fertilized egg is first called a zygote. The zygote divides to form two cells about 24 hours after fertilization • Then the cells divide and multiplies again, forming more cells
Embryo • After about a week, the zygote attaches itself to the lining of the uterus • After another week the zygote is called an embryo • This is the developing organism from two weeksuntil the end of the eighth weekof development
Fetus • After the eighth week the human embryo is called a fetus. • It is the developing organism from the end of the eighth week until birth (nine months)
First Trimester • 0-3 Months of pregnancy • Length: 3 inches • Weight: 1 ounce • Arms, legs, fingers, toes, brain, nerves, heartbeat
Second Trimester • 3-6 months of pregnancy • Length:12 inches • Weight: 1-2 pounds • Eyebrows, fingernails • Starts to kick and hear sounds
Third Trimester • 6-9 months of pregnancy • Length: 18- 20 inches • Weight: 7-9 pounds • Smooth skin • Open eyes, fingers can grasp, body organs and systems can work on their own
Where is the baby getting food? • Umbilical Cord • The Placenta is the organ that allows nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply.
Placenta • A placenta is something that forms during pregnancy on the inside wall of the uterus and provides nutrition to the fetus during pregnancy. The woman will push this out after the baby is born and it can weigh on average 2-3 lbs.
Purpose of the Umbilical Cord Attaches the baby to the placenta when it falls off you are left with a belly button The umbilical cord is the baby's life line. Without the umbilical cord the baby will not grow. Its purpose is to pass food from the mom to the baby that is why at birth the umbilical cord is cut off because they don't need it anymore because they start feeding on milk (breast milk) or normal formula. It is essential to the baby's growth and development. Without it there's no baby!
Amniotic Sac A protective membrane that surrounds the embryo and fetus • Helps maintain even temperature • Reduces trauma • Allows baby to move • Prevents uterine wall from pushing in on fetus
How long is woman pregnant? Pregnancy lasts approximately40 weeks and from 37 to 42 weeks or9months.
What’s the best chance for survival? A baby born after ___36____ weeks stands the best chance of survival.
Premature Baby born before being fully developed A baby born after 36 weeks stands the best chance of survival A developing baby goes through important growth during the final weeks and months of pregnancy. Many organ systems, including the brain, lungs, and liver need the final weeks of pregnancy to develop fully. There is a higher risk of serious disability or death the earlier the baby is born.
Premature Continued Each year, preterm birth affects nearly 500,000 babies—that's 1 of every 9 infants born in the United States. Preterm birth costs the U.S. health care system more than $26 billion each year. Preterm birth is the birth of an infant prior to 37 weeks of pregnancy. Preterm-related causes of death together accounted for 35% in 2008 of all infant deaths, more than any other single cause. Preterm birth is also a leading cause of long-term neurological disabilities in children.
What is Premature Birth? • It is a birth that is at least three weeks before a baby's due date. It is also known as preterm birth (or less than 37 weeks—full term is 40 weeks). Important growth and development occur throughout pregnancy—especially in the final months and weeks. • The earlier a baby is born, the more severe his or her health problems are likely to be.Although babies born very preterm are a small percentage of all births, these very preterm infants account for a large proportion of infant deaths. More infants die from preterm-related problems than from any other single cause.Some premature babies require special care and spend weeks or months hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Those who survive may face lifelong problems such as—
Continued • Intellectual disabilities • Cerebral palsy. (motor nerve disorder – spastic paralysis on one side of the body. Severe cases loss of normal control, seizures, blocked speech and hearing, etc.) • Breathing and respiratory problems. • Visual problems including retinopathy of prematurity. • Hearing loss. • Feeding and digestive problems.
Stillbirth vs. Miscarriage Miscarriage is a loss of a pregnancy before 24 weeks, usually occurs in the first 12 weeks. Majority are due to chromosome, genetic or structural problems Stillbirth baby was developing but dies after 25 weeks
Stages of Labor Stage 1 DILATION The uterus begins to contract and this causes the cervix to open or dilate and it causes it to thin out effacement This stage can last 6-16 hours
Stage 2 EXPULSION The baby is pushed out the birth canal The stage can last from a couple of pushes to two hours Stage 3 AFTERBIRTH The placenta is delivered This stage can last 5-15 minutes
What to do during pregnancy? • Eat Healthy foods • Have regular check ups • Beware of infections • Don’t use tobacco • Don’t drink alcohol • Don’t take any unnecessary drugs
Chromosomes Definition • Chromosomes are long pieces of DNA found in the center (nucleus) of cells. DNA is the material that holds genes. It is considered the building block of the human body. Information • Chromosomes come in pairs. Normally, each cell in the human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total chromosomes). Half come from the mother; the other half come from the father.
Chromosomes, cont. • Information • Two of the chromosomes (the X and the Y chromosome) determine if you are born a boy or a girl (your gender). They are called sex chromosomes: • Females have 2 X chromosomes. • Males have 1 X and 1 Y chromosome. • The mother always contributes an X chromosome to the child. The father may contribute an X or a Y. Therefore, it is the father that determines the gender of the child. • The remaining chromosomes are called autosomal chromosomes. They are known as chromosome pairs 1 through 22.
Chromosomes, cont. • Definition • Autosomal dominant is one of several ways that a trait or disorder can be passed down through families. • If a disease is autosomal dominant, it means you only need to get the abnormal gene from one parent in order for you to inherit the disease. One of the parents may often have the disease.
Extra Chromosome • Causes, incidence, and risk factors • In most cases, Down syndrome occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. This form of Down syndrome is called Trisomy 21. The extra chromosome causes problems with the way the body and brain develop. • Down syndrome is the most common single cause of human birth defects
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) In Vitro Fertilization is commonly referred to as IVF. IVF is the process of fertilization by manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. When the IVF procedure is successful, the process is combined with a procedure known as embryo transfer, which is used to physically place the embryo in the uterus.
IVF • There are basically five steps in the IVF and embryo transfer process which include the following: • Monitor and stimulate the development of healthy egg(s) in the ovaries. • Collect the eggs. • Secure the sperm. • Combine the eggs and sperm together in the laboratory and provide the appropriate environment for fertilization and early embryo growth. • Transfer embryos into the uterus.
Twins - Identical • Identical, or onozygotic, twins are of the same sex and are genetically and physically similar because they both come fromone ovum, which, after fertilization, divides in two and develops into two separate individuals. • Identical twins are produced when one egg is fertilized by one sperm.During the zygote stage, the egg splits into two. This creates two separate embryos and thus the children will be identical copies of each other. The same exact chromosome match
Fraternal Twins • Fraternal, or dizygotic, twins occur when the mother produces two eggs in one monthly cycle and both eggs are fertilized. • There are two types of twins. Fraternal twins are produced when two eggs are released and two separate sperm fertilize them. These twins are not identical, although they may still look alike because they are siblings.
What is a multiple birth?A multiple birth occurs when you give birth to more than one baby. Thus, twins, triplets, quads, and quints are all multiple birth babies. • What happens to make multiple births possible?There are only two ways multiple births occur. Either more than one egg was fertilized by more than one sperm or one egg was fertilized but divides into two (or more) fetuses during the 1st week of fertilization.
What are my chances of having more than one baby at a time?The occurrence of identical twins is pretty much the same throughout the world and hasn't changed much over time. Your chances of having identical twins is between 1 in 250 to 1 in 300. The chance of having fraternal twins is greater, at about 1 in 50. From there, the odds go up fast. Your chance of having triplets is about 1 in 7000. Chances of quadruplets are about 1 in 700,000 and chances for quintuplets are 1 in 65 million or more. • Is it true that the number of multiple births is increasing?Yes. Over the last ten years, the number of twins has increased by 33%. The occurrence of triplets has increased by 178%! Much of this is caused by the increased use of fertility drugs and in-vitro fertilization
Conjoin Twins • When a single fertilized egg splits and develops into two fetuses, they are identical twins. If the separation stops before the process is complete, the twins that result will be conjoined. The causes of splitting, and of not splitting completely, seem to be a number of environmental and genetic factors.
Ectopic Pregnancy • An ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition that requires emergency treatment. It predominantly occurs when the embryo implants in one of the fallopian tubes instead of the uterus. Rarely, the embryo can attach to an ovary or other abdominal organs. An ectopic pregnancy is most likely to occur within the first few weeks of pregnancy and is usually discovered by the 8th week of pregnancy.
Ectopic Pregnancy cont; • How Common Is Ectopic Pregnancy? • An ectopic pregnancy is estimated to occur in up to 1 out of every 50 pregnancies. • If the fallopian tube ruptures, the pain and bleeding could be severe enough to cause fainting. • If you are experiencing the symptoms listed above, contact your health care provider right away and go to the emergency room. Getting to the hospital immediately is important to reduce the risk of hemorrhaging (severe bleeding) and to preserve your fertility. • What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? • If one of the fallopian tubes is damaged, it may not allow the fertilized egg to pass to the uterus causing the egg to implant in the fallopian tube or elsewhere.
Miscarriage • A miscarriage is the loss (death) of a baby before the 20th week of pregnancy. The medical term for a miscarriage is spontaneous abortion, but the condition is not an abortion in the common definition of the term. • According to the March of Dimes, as many as 50% of all pregnancies end in miscarriage -- most often before a woman misses a menstrual period or even knows she is pregnant. About 15% of recognized pregnancies will end in a miscarriage. • More than 80% of miscarriages occur within the first three months of pregnancy. Less likely they occur after 20 weeks gestation; these are termed late miscarriages.
Miscarriage cont; • What Causes Miscarriage? • The causes of miscarriage are not well understood. Most of the miscarriages that occur in the first trimester are caused by chromosomal abnormalities in baby. Chromosomes are tiny structures inside the cells of the body which carry many genes. Genes determine all of a person's physical attributes, such as sex, hair and eye color, and blood type. Most chromosomal problems occur by chance and are not related to the mother's or father's health.
Siamese Twins • Every time that the egg cell is fertilized, there is a chance to be separated into two identical cells, which forms identical twins. Maybe the zygote didn't undergo successful separation so some parts of the fetus are left attached to the other twin.
Breech Birth • A breech birth is when your baby is born either feet or bottom first, instead of the normal head first. It is thought around 4% of babies are born in a breech position. • For most of the pregnancy the baby is able to float freely in the womb (uterus). Towards the end of the pregnancy, some time around the eighth month, the baby settles into a particular position in the womb. • Because there isn't much room in the womb at this point, the baby tries to make the most of what room there is by settling into a vertical, head-down position, known as the vertex position. By the time labor begins, almost 96% of babies are in this position. Most of the remainder are in a breech position.
Can a breech position be corrected before the birth? • Sometimes a doctor or midwife will try to manually move the baby into the correct position. This may work; however in some cases, the baby will refuse to move or will rotate back into the breech position. • My baby is in a breech position. Does this mean I have to have a caesarean section? • This depends on the circumstances. Some hospitals favour a caesarean section because a breech birth tends to be longer and more difficult as the baby’s bottom will not push its way down the birth canal as efficiently as the head. However a caesarean section is not necessary in many cases of breech presentation. Your obstetrician will discuss this with you before you go into labour.
What is a Caesarian? An incision is made in the abdomen and the baby is removed A cesarean section, also known as a c-section is a surgical method of birth. In this type of birth the baby is born by a surgical cut in the abdomen and uterus.