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MULTIPLE & MIXED METHODS APPROACHES

MULTIPLE & MIXED METHODS APPROACHES

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MULTIPLE & MIXED METHODS APPROACHES

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  1. MULTIPLE & MIXED METHODS APPROACHES

  2. Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293…… 23/9/2012

  3. PERBANDINGAN Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  4. PARADIGMA KE TIGA Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  5. PRAGMATISME Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  6. RISIKO DALAM MENGGUNAKAN MM Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  7. TIPOLOGI RISET MM Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  8. .. Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  9. PARADIGMA Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  10. TIPOLOGI RISET MM Diunduh dari: http://blogpdf.com/mixed-methods-research---sample-heading-text-48913293 …… 23/9/2012

  11. TUJUANNYA Tujuan integrasi Tujuan desain MM Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

  12. Perkembanganselama 20 tahunterakhir • Increasing interest in and advocacy for mixed methods • Evolving understanding of what is mixed methods research • Developing designs and innovative techniques • “The emergence of mixed methods as a third methodological movement in the social and behavioral sciences began during the 1980’s.” (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003: 697) Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  13. Perkembangan MMA “Combining qualitative and quantitative methods has gained broad appeal in public health research.” (1999) Mentioned several approaches for combining qualitative and quantitative research Advanced considerations for deciding what model to use (literature available, prior studies, realistic design, expertise) Suggested to describe each method thoroughly Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  14. BUKU-BUKU TENTANG MMR Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  15. A New Journal Journals Devoted to Mixed Methods: Fieldwork Quality and Quantity Mixed Method Approaches Editors: John W. Creswell and Abbas Tashakkori Managing Editor: Vicki L. Plano Clark Email: vpc@unlserve.unl.edu Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  16. International Conferences • Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, England, July 21-24, 2008 • Proposed mixed methods conference, Sydney, Australia, 2009 • Discipline conferences with mixed methods papers Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  17. KritikPakar(Creswell, 2007) • Is there a post-positivist leaning to mixed methods? • Howe, K. R. (2004). A critique of experimentalism. Qualitative Inquiry, 10, 42-61. • Giddings, L. S. (2006). Mixed-methods research: Positivism dressed in drag? Journal of Research in Nursing, 11(3), 195-2003. • Holmes, C. A. (2007). Mixed(up) methods, methodology and interpretive frameworks. Contributed paper for the Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, University, July 10-12, 2006. • What are the limits for mixed methods research? • Sale, J. E. M., Lohfeld, L. H., Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research. Quality and Quantity, 36, 43-53. • Leahey, E. (2007). Convergence and confidentiality? Limits to the implementation of mixed methodology. Social Science Research, 36, 149-158. • Is there a dominant discourse in mixed methods research? • Freshwater, D. (2007). Reading mixed methods research: Contexts for criticism. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 134-146. Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  18. MMR TIDAK BERBEDA DENGAN METODE LAINNYA Identifying a research problem Reviewing the literature Identifying a purpose and stating questions Views of knowledge Assumptions Collecting data Analyzing and interpreting data Reporting and evaluating the study Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  19. Mixed Methods didalam Designs Experimental research Ethnography Case Study Research Narrative research Qual ----- Quan Qual----- Quan Qual-----Quan Qual---- Quan Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  20. Istilah-istilah yang Populer • Multi-method • Triangulation • Integrated • Combined • Quantitative and qualitative methods • Multi-methodology • Mixed methodology • Mixed-method • Mixed research • Mixed methods Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  21. BAGAIMANA MENCAMPUR-NYA Data Konvergen: Qual Quan Results Connect data: Qual Quan Results Embed the data: Quan data Qual data Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  22. MENGAPA MENCAMPUR ? • Validity – to corroborate quan and qual data • Offset – offset weaknesses of quan and qual and draw on strengths • Completeness – more comprehensive account that qual or quan alone • Process – quan provides outcomes; qual, the processes • Explanation – qual can explain quan results or vice-versa • Unexpected results – surprising results from one, other explains • Instrument development – qual employed to design instrument • Credibility – both approaches enhance integrity of findings • Context – qual provides context; quan provides general. • Utility – more useful to practitioners Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  23. “Single” Paradigm Ke -3 • Pragmatism (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003) • Focus on research question • What “works,” consequences • Multiple methods – large toolkit • Transformative (Mertens, 2003) • Transform lives of under represented, marginalized groups • Incorporate this focus into all phases of research Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  24. Perkembangan Designs danTeknik-teknikInovatif Key Developments • Notation • Typologies • Diagrams of procedures • Complex evaluation models • Reconceptualizing designs • Emergence of innovations in procedures • Unusual blends • Methodological issues • Data analysis techniques • Presentation techniques Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  25. Preliminary Design Considerations (Morse, 1991) quan qual Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  26. Parsimonious Designs (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007) QUANPre-test Data & Results QUANPost-test Data & Results Interpretation qualProcess Intervention QUANData & Results QUALData & Results Interpretation Concurrent Mixed Methods Designs Triangulation Design Embedded Design Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  27. Sequential Designs - Mixed Methods Designs qualData & Results QUANData & Results Interpretation Following up quanData & Results QUALData & Results Interpretation Building to QUANIntervention Trial Before-interventionqual After-intervention qual Interpretation Explanatory Design Exploratory Design Sequential Embedded Design Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp...  22/9/2912

  28. Pemikiranpentingnya ... MM.. • Combinations of methods that could be chosen • The epistemological and ontological implications of what is chosen • The practicalities of carrying out the research • How the data are going to be brought together (lack of theory?) • Tensions between approaches and methods

  29. Apakahkitamemahami? • Multiple Method Research Designs (MMRD) • Multi-method designs -1+ method within paradigms • Mixed methods designs -1+ method mixed paradigms • Combining methods – 1+ method, one subsumed to other? • Integrating methods – 1+ method of equal weight? • Triangulation – outcome of MMRD?* • Data transformation • Quantitized data • Qualitized data

  30. Mengapakitalakukan? • Emic and etic understandings? • Multiple research questions? • Multiple facets or contexts • Multiple of singular reality? • Mixed phenomena?

  31. Bagaimanakitamelakukannya? • Sequential or parallel? • Linked or independent? • Respondent enrolment • Development of research instruments • Time required • Costs – value for money? • Necessary expertise? • Team organisation and communication

  32. Penanganan Data • Where’s your theory? How does that help? • Assumptions and presumptions – negotiating a path through/round them • Integration; triangulation; combination? • When are you going to integrate? Have you missed the moment? • Will your audience understand?

  33. Possible tensions? • Methodological • Differing findings • Unit of analysis • Political • Preference/requirements of ‘audiences’ • Practical • Time • Money • Age of data

  34. Arguing for....... MMRIs it the ideal approach?

  35. Memperkuatpemahamantentang: • Multi-faceted nature of all phenomena • Contextuality • Micro-meso-macro dimensions / relationships • Agency and structure

  36. Topik “Kerentanan” = VULNERABILITY • Essentialist approaches • Constructionist approaches • Fixed state/status • Contextual and fluid • An inherent weakness or something managed and negotiated? • Children and vulnerability

  37. PendekatanMetoda Tunggal? • Which one and why that? • Insufficient for some purposes • eg Policy development • Cannot elaborate micro-meso-macro interfaces and relationships • Structure and agency • Some presumptions are problematic

  38. MM: Multiple / Mixed Methods • Multi-dimensional phenomenon • Access via different methods derived from an interpretivist stance • Can explore contingency and dynamic aspects • Draw on emic and etic conceptualisations to plan a strong design for mixed methods • Can explore structural relationships and agency/structure interfaces

  39. Etika Data SekunderdanPertanyaanRiset • Census data • National data sets (eg GHS) • National statistical returns (eg Crime statistics for HO) • Published research findings • Local surveys (primary data) • Local statistics (secondary/primary data) • Limited data about children • Pertanyaan Penelitian • Specific (hypotheses) • Determined at start by outside ‘experts’/prior research • Limited by what is available eg area; analysis unit

  40. Contoh : EtikaPertanyaantentang “Kerentanan” The example of children and non-domestic violence • Area level: ‘risky’ areas? • Deprived areas (IMD measurements): are high crime rates against children associated with neighbourhood levels of deprivation? • Individual level: vulnerable people? • Are children more or less vulnerable to non-domestic violence than other age groups? • How does this vary by (eg) age, ethnicity, gender, imputed social class, household income?

  41. Relevansi MM ? • Children are often seen as inherently vulnerable • Particularly the case in policy terms • Indirect challenge from sociology of childhood • Agency ; social actors • But ambivalence about children as vulnerable members of society

  42. Pendekatan MM • Interested in the different ways in which children might construct, explain and experience vulnerability • Theoretical integration with macro level understandings of children as vulnerable • Children aged between 10 and 18, living at home with at least one parent

  43. MM TERINTEGRASI • No predetermined definition of vulnerability • Interviews to explore how they conceptualised vulnerability and how they responded to it • Photo-elicitation and video-journey interviews in addition • Focus here on integrated findings for non-domestic safety and vulnerability

  44. Theorising the integrated findings • Vulnerability emerges as contextual to the social worlds of the participants • Reflects the ways in which children/young people are positioned between structures which constrain their actions on the basis of their age, and their own desires, opportunities, and abilities to be (relatively) autonomous social actors • Vulnerability is a site around which the relationship between their structural position in their families, and in society more generally, and their status as social actors is played out

  45. PERKEMBANGAN LANJUT • Using a mixed methods approach • Interface between micro and macro dimensions of physical safety, distributions of risk, violence • Would need primary data to capture distributions of management strategies

  46. ProsesIntegrasi: • Mengkombinasikan metode/data/analysis sedemikian rupa sehingga: • Mereka membentuk satu kesatuan • Menjaga sifat0sifat paradigmatiknya masing-masing (tidak mencampur-adukkan satu-sama lain) • Menghasilkan kontribusi yang sama nilainya

  47. AlternatifIntegrasi • Integrasi sejak awal riset • Selama pengumpulan data • Melalui Analisis Data • Melalui Interpretasi • Sebagai hasil Presentasi

  48. MMR: MIXED METHODS RESEARCH MMR: A style of research that uses procedures for conducting research that are typically applied in both quantitative and qualitative studies Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

  49. . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH. Purpose The purpose of these studies is usually to inform sponsors about a program they are funding. The sponsors may want a descriptive study  of the program in which the operations and processes are explained and clarified. They may also be interested in an effectiveness study  in which the operations are assessed in relation to organizational goals and targets. Finally, a sponsor may fund a  policy study  to make recommendations to future policy decision-makers. Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012

  50. . M.M.R. METODE-METODE The research problem itself determines the choice of a design, but any of the methods below areavailable to the researcher: Surveys Site visits. Interviews Observations Questionnaires Quantitative data. Diunduh dari: http://www.scribd.com/doc/18058748/Multi-Method-Research…… 21/9/2012