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Depression in Children and Adolescents

Depression in Children and Adolescents

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Depression in Children and Adolescents

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  1. Depression in Children and Adolescents Presented by David Conrad SPED 592

  2. Introduction • Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) • Not just feeling the blues • Was not until the 1970’s that diagnosis of depression in children was widely accepted

  3. U.S department of Health • 2.5% of children • 8.5% of Adolescents • 50% increase in girls over boys

  4. Rates of depression differ with ethnicity • 29% of American Indian • 22% of Hispanic Americans • 18% of White Americans • 17% of Asian Americans • 15% of African Americans

  5. Genetics • Genetics plays a role in depression • Parent dramatically increases a child’s risk • It is not known whether inherited genes specifically cause depression or whether inherited cognitive styles lead to depression

  6. Cognitive Theory • Negative self-perceptions make individuals vulnerable • Distortions • Negative attributions • Hopelessness • Tendency to blame outcomes on external forces

  7. Other Factors • Stressful life events • Family size • Minority status • Physical and sexual abuse • Diabetes increase risk 20% • Immigrant children *Bullying has also been noted as a risk factor in the development of depression for both the bullied and those who bully.

  8. Symptoms of MDD • Depressed mood or irritable mood • Markedly diminished interest • Significant weight loss or gain • Insomnia • Psychomotor agitation or retardation • Fatigue or loss of energy • Feelings of worthlessness • Diminished ability to concentrate • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide

  9. Complications • Can carry on into adulthood • Poorer global functioning • Poor Relationships with family • Smaller social network • Lesser life satisfaction • Greater utilization of mental health services

  10. Management • Short-term psychotherapy • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) • Interpersonal therapy (IPT) • Medication • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) • Fluoxetine (prozac) • Combination of the two

  11. Application in the classroom • Focus on positive less on correcting in regards to feedback • Rotate seating; this builds confidence and the feeling of importance in individuals • Give individual attention to the students • Choose stand partners carefully, match struggling students with more capable students

  12. Implications in the classroom • Make connection with students (notice changes in behaviors, personality, and motivation) • Communicate with other teachers that work with the student • Steer the student in the direction where they could get help

  13. Application with my students • Would not single out student • Give more individual attention whenever possible • Make connection with family

  14. Resource Depression in Children and Adolescents By Noel M. Davis The Journal of School Nursing