Five Principles to Help You Achieve Success • Be There • Do the Work • Get Help • Plan • Think
Successful College Students … • Are prepared for class • Are on time • Pay attention • Take notes • Ask and answer questions
Other Aspects of College Success • Getting help • Faculty office hours • Tutoring and other academic support/success resources • Planning and using your time • Learning to think critically • Taking the course syllabus seriously • Course assignments • Expectations concerning academic honesty
Differences Between High School and Higher Education • What are some of the differences you have observed between high school and higher education? • In Chapter 1, what do the authors describe as some of the differences between high school and higher education? • Why did you choose this institution? • At what point in your life did you know you would attend college?
Differences Between High School and Higher Education • What are your expectations of college? • What do you expect to gain from the college experience? • What goals do you have for yourself this semester? In two or three years? When you graduate?
External and Internal Values External Values Dictated by others, particularly society Internal Values Personal beliefs To have a greater chance of achieving your goals, you should align them with your internal values.
Long- and Short-Term Goals • Goals should be very specific and include a date by which each goal should be accomplished. Creating an action plan can help keep you accountable and working toward your stated goals. • There are two types of goals: • Long-term goals • Short-term goals
Discussion Questions • In this chapter, the authors ask you to define success by visualizing your life in twenty years. What do you think your life will be like then? How will you measure your success? • The authors provide two definitions of goals, as well as examples of short- and long-term goals. Whatare two important aspects of both long- and short-term goals, and why are those aspects important?
Discussion Questions • What are some differences between tasks and goals? • Why is it important to regularly review and revise your goals? • How can an action plan help you reach your goals?
Time Management • Time management is a collection of skills, techniques, strategies, and attitudes that enablea person to use time effectively. • Time management is not about trying to maximize the productivity of every hour in your life. Life is a continuing balance between growth and achievement, and relaxation and leisure. • The number-one determinant of powerful and effective time management is FOCUS.
Weekly Schedule • A time journal can help you track how you spend your time. You can use it to set your weekly schedule, which should: • Include at least 2 to 2½ study hours for every hour spent in class (class-time-to-study ratio). That means that if you are taking 12 to 15 credit hours, you should be studying 24 to 38 hours a week. • Reflect your personal priorities and goals. • If your goal is to earn at least a 3.0 grade-point • average, your weekly schedule should reflect a • significant amount of time devoted to studying and • preparing for your classes.
Procrastination and Prioritizing • Success in school and life will depend on your ability to take action. If you want to move forward in life, you will have to defeat the urge to procrastinate. • You can beat procrastination by making choices that reflect your personal priorities. Consider the following: • There are only so many hours in the day. • How much time you give to your goals will directly affect your achievement.
Effective Time Management • Allotting time to tasks is important, but even more important is how you use the time you have allotted: • Distractions can derail your focus. Find ways to limit distractions—like text-messaging and Facebook—while you are studying so you can make the most of your time and remain focused. • Effective time management does not mean always being busy. How effectively you use your time will determine your progress toward reaching your goals.
Discussion Questions • What do you think effective time management looks like? Are you effective at managing your time? • How do you currently make decisions involving your time? • The authors talk about how time management relates to the attainment of personal goals. How are your current time-management strategies helping you to reach your long- and short-term goals?
Discussion Questions • According to the authors, “80% of your results come from 20% of your efforts.” Do you agree or disagree? Explain. • The authors suggest that the concept of energy might be more important than the concept of time. In other words, devoting more energy to a task can have better results than just devoting more time to it. Do you agree? Have you had anyfirsthand experience with this idea? • What specific strategies do you use to manage your time effectively?
Learning Styles • Examining learning styles can help you understand how you prefer to learn and can help you identify areas in which you need to improve as a learner. • The four categories of learning styles are: • Visual • Auditory • Tactile • Kinesthetic
Multiple Intelligences • Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences theory provides additional information about intelligence and learning styles. • The following are Gardner’s eight intelligence types: • Verbal-linguistic • Logical-mathematical • Visual-spatial • Bodily-kinesthetic • Musical-rhythmic • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • Naturalistic
Emotional Intelligence (EQ) • Emotional Intelligence (EQ) involves being aware of and managing your emotions and those of people around you. Unlike IQ, EQ can change and improve throughout one’s life. • There are two types of EQ: • Personal competence • Social competence
Discussion Questions • What is your preferred learning style? Share some examples of how you use your preferred learning style when you are studying. • In this chapter, the authors say it is important to know your learning styles so you can use them to your advantage. Furthermore, knowing about the various learning styles can help you identifyareas you need to strengthen. How can you adapt your learning styles? How do learning styles relate to teaching styles?
Discussion Questions • Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences theory provides additional information about intelligence as it relates to styles of learning and processing information. Which of the eight intelligences best describes how you learn? • Think about your preferred learning style(s) and the intelligence style you chose from Gardner’s list. How can you use these concepts together to enhance your learning?
Discussion Questions • The authors say that one of the upsides of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is that it can be improved throughout one’s life. Conversely, IQ is something that does not change. Do you agree with this statement? Explain. • How can you apply the two categories of EQ to your learning and to everyday life?
Critical Thinking • Critical thinking is purposeful, deliberative reflections that consider what to believe or do, what to accept or reject, and what to expect in the future based on present information. • Well-educated people use critical-thinking skills all the time. They make use of acquired information and experiences to make informed decisions. • Becoming a better critical thinker is what college is all about.
Critical-Thinking Strategies Use the acronym ACES to improve your critical-thinking skills: • Analyze: Read and listen carefully. Look for main ideas and examine assumptions. • Clarify: Understand all information and ask specific, clarifying questions. • Evaluate: Make decisions about the validity of information. Evaluate your thinking and experience. • See Relationships: Look for connections between what you have learned and what you are learning in other settings.
Discussion Questions • Think about a situation in which you had to make a difficult decision. What steps did you take to reach your decision? Do you think you used critical-thinking skills? Explain. • Critical thinking is often described as a sophisticated process. Do you agree or disagree? Explain. • What skills do you think are involved in critical thinking?
Discussion Questions • In this chapter, the authors present the acronym ACES as a strategy for improving critical-thinking skills. Provide an example of how you can use this strategy when making decisions and/or solving problems. • Think of differences between facts and opinions, and provide an example of each.
Note-Taking • Taking notes is an important aspect of college success. • There are two types of notes: • 1. In-class notes: based on lectures • and discussions • 2. Reading notes: based on textbooks, • articles, and other supplemental • class resources. • It is important to develop strategies for taking • and using in-class and reading notes.
Class Notes • By listening, observing, and predicting or asking questions, you can improve the notes you take in class. • You can organize your notes using an informal outline, the Cornell Method, or by clustering information. • After you take your notes, make sure you: • 1. Review your notes immediately after • a class. • 2. Review your notes before the next class. • 3. Review your notes when studying for • an exam.
Reading Notes • Preview the material first; then read and re-read it to make sure you comprehend the information. Finally, take notes on the selected information. • Divide information into sections before you begin reading. This will help you manage a large reading assignment. • Find a logical way to organize the • information you have read. Outlining it can be • handy because you can go back to it and add • information from a class lecture or discussion.
Discussion Questions • What do you think you do well when you are taking notes? • What specific strategies do you use when you are taking in-class notes? Reading notes? • If you have never taken reading notes, do you think this is a strategy you might use in the future? In any specific class? Explain.
Discussion Questions • In this chapter, the authors describe how creating a study guide might eliminate the need to refer to your textbook. How might you organize your in-class and reading notes to create a study guide? • How do you use your notes to study for a test?Do you use the same strategies for each class and/or type of exam? Explain.
Test-Taking • Tests are “learning experiences” because they allow you to clarify and reinforce knowledge of a particular subject, they provide an instructor with valuable feedback about your learning, and they allow for objective assessment of that learning. • Although learning is important, grades in college also matter. Your grades become part of your transcript, which will stay with you for the remainder of your life.
Steps to Taking a Test • Step 1: Preparation • Begin preparing the first day. • Do the assignments (all of them). • Find out about the test’s format and what topics and materials will be on the test. • Combine in-class and reading notes to • create a study guide. • Use a study schedule. • Visit your professor during his/her office hours.
Steps to Taking a Test • Step 2: Taking the Test • Find a good seat in the classroom. • Preview the exambefore answering any questions. • Write down formulas, etc., that you might need. • Plan your time, leaving enough time for review. • Read the directions and questions carefully, • and answer the easiest questions first. • Write clearly and show all of your work. • Review the test, and only change an answer • if you are positive it is wrong.
Steps to Taking a Test • Step 3: When You Get the Test Back • Review the test carefully and read all of your instructor’s comments. • Analyze your mistakes, and talk with your instructor to make sure you understand what you did wrong. • Get help, if you need it, to learn the • information you missed. • Save the test, if your instructor allows you • to keep it, and record your grade in a safe • place.
Types of Tests • There are two types of tests: • Recognition: Multiple choice, true/false, and matching • Recall: Essays, short answers, and fill-in-the-blanks • Recognition tests require that you recognize the correct answer from the choices provided. • Recall tests require that you retrieve the • information from memory, and in some • cases, make connections between concepts • on the test.
Test Anxiety • Remember, you are not alone. At one time or another, everyone (even your professor or instructor) has been nervous about a test. • Developing your memory skills, remaining positive before and during a test, preparing thoroughly, and learning to relax through breathing or visualization • techniques will help you overcome test anxiety. • If your test anxiety persists, talk to • your professor, advisor, or counselor • for additional assistance.
Discussion Questions • The authors describe tests as “learning experiences.” Based on your own experiences taking tests, either in high school or college, do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain. • Describe the steps you take to prepare for an exam. Do these steps vary based on the type of test?Explain.
Discussion Questions • How do you approach taking a test? For example, some students read all of the questions before answering any of them; other students answer the easiest questions first; and some answer the most difficult questions first. • Have your strategies for preparing for or taking tests changed, or do you use the same strategies • you used in high school? Explain. • What do you do when you receive a graded • test from a professor?
Midterm • The midpoint of the semester is a good time to evaluate: • Your academic progress • Your goals and your progress toward meeting them • 3. Your personal progress • 4. Your future
Discussion Questions • Your Academic Progress • Which of the principles of a successful student have you found to be the most useful? Least? Explain. • What actions have you taken to make sure you earn • the grades you want? What resources have you used? • What will you do to make sure you reach your academic goals?
Discussion Questions • Your Goals and Your Progress Toward Meeting Them • Are the goals you set at the beginning of this semester still realistic? Explain. • What different or additional goals do you have now? • What caused you to change your goals? Or what prompted • you to add to your goals?
Discussion Questions • Your Personal Progress • What is your college experience like? Is it what you expected it to be? Explain. • What have you learned about who you are and what you • believe in as a result of this process? • What have you learned about other people? • What do you think would surprise your high school friends about college?