American Barbecue John Glover Block D November 26, 2012
History in America • Barbecue comes from the Spanish word “barbecoa”. • Technique was introduced by African-America slaves and Native Americans. • “Pig Pickins” played a large roll in public gatherings in the South: • Political • Religious • Social • Fundraisers
Barbecue Technique • Source of heat is indirect- smoldering embers and soaked hardwood chips. • Smoke is essential. • Should be fork tender. • General temperature of 175-300 degrees (“low and slow”). • Up to 18 hours of cooking. • Tougher cuts of meat (more connective tissue) are used: • Brisket • Ribs • Shoulder
Regions • Four main regional styles of barbecue: • North Carolina • Memphis • Kansas City • Texas • Differences in: • Sauces • Rubs • Cuts of meat used • How its served • Cooking length • Type of wood used
North Carolina • Pork shoulder is typically used. • Smoked over oak or hickory chips for up to 8 hours. • Rubs/ “mop sauces” optional. Rubs include sugar, paprika, salt. • Shoulder is shredded by hand or chopped, dressed with sauce. • Served on bun with Cole slaw. • Sauces: • Thin sauce based on distilled or cider vinegar. Other flavorings include salt, hot red pepper flakes and a small amount of sugar. • A derivative sauce based on above recipe with added tomato sauce or ketchup. • A sauce of vinegar and mustard and can also include a sweetener such as molasses or honey.
Memphis • Pork shoulder and pork ribs are used most • Two styles of barbecue: • “Wet”- meat is slathered in sauce, barbecued over hardwood chips, sauced again, served. • “Dry”- meat is coated in a thick crust of dry rub, barbecued, sprinkled with more rub, served. • Sauce is based on vinegar sugar and tomato sauce or ketchup. More sour than sweet.
Texas • Mostly beef, especially brisket. • Usually not seasoned before or during cooking. • Smoked over oak, hickory, pecan or mesquite chips . • Smoked for a characteristically long time- 18 hours. • Sauces are not common in most of Texas. When sauces are used they are thin, tart, spicy tomato and vinegar based, served on the side. • Also have a thick and sweet molasses- based style of sauce. • Commonly sliced and served on cheap bread
Kansas City • Pork shoulder, ribs, and beef brisket are most common cuts. • “Burnt ends” are most desirable piece of brisket. • Dry rubs are sometimes used. • Sauce is thick and sweet and includes ketchup or tomato sauce, brown sugar, corn syrup, molasses, vinegar, onion, garlic, red pepper flakes, liquid smoke, apple juice. • Also use a vinegar based sauce similar to North Carolina style.