Culturing Clownfish Marine Aquaculture By Rudy Cordle
Name, Genus and species of clownfish • Premium Picasso (Amphiprionpercula) • Picasso (Amphiprionpercula) • Platinum (Amphiprionpercula) • Black Snowflake (Amphiprionocellaris) • Premium Snowflake(Amphiprionocellaris) • Naked Ocellaris (Amphiprionocellaris) • Midnight (Amphiprionocellaris) • Domino (Amphiprionocellaris) • Ocellaris(Amphiprionocellaris) • MisbarOcellaris (Amphiprionocellaris) • Black Ocellaris (Amphiprionocellaris) • GoldflakeMaroon (Premnasbiaculeatus) • Spotcintus(Amphiprionbicinctus) • Pearl-Eye Clarkii (Amphiprionclarkii) • Black Saddleback (Amphiprionpolymnus) • Pink Skunk (Amphiprionperideraion) • Orange Skunk (Amphiprionsandaracinos) • Fire (Amphiprionephippium) • Tomato (Amphiprionfrenatus) • Cinnamon (Amphiprionmelanopus) • Barberi(Amphiprionbarberi) • McCullochi(Amphiprionmccullochi)
Amphiprionocellaris– Ocellaris Clownfish • One of the most common grown clownfish. • Hardy, cheap, abundant and a great first saltwater fish. • Makes a great movie.
Economics of Clownfish • Most inexpensive is $12.99 for Ocellaris. • Most expensive is $249.99 for Super Black Ice Snowflake Clownfish.
Clownfish are among the most popular species of aquarium fish in the world. • A United Nations report found that at least 145,000 of them were traded internationally between 1997 and 2002. • Raised in Singapore, Taiwan, and the US. • By 2011, Taiwan could breed 2 million clownfish and generate NT$100 million in the lucrative ornamental fish market, while helping save the species in the wild
Life cycle of clownfish • The eggs looked like little capsules about 2 to 3 mm long and 1 mm wide. • The eggs take about 8 to 10 days to hatch. • Larval period of 10 to 20 days. • Critical stages are the two first days of larvae life and the moment metamorphosis takes place, when mortality can be high. • After about 25 days, juveniles can be moved to a different tank to begin acclimation. • Clownfish are protandroushermaphrodites.
Reproduction • Clownfishes were among the first ornamental species to be commercially bred in the 1980’s. • Clownfishes typically reach sexual maturity at an age of 8-18 months. • Spawning occurs during daylight hours and a small clutch of eggs is laid usually on the underside of a rock or other solid base. • A typical nest may contain 100-300 eggs for the smaller species such as percula, or up to several thousand eggs for maroon clownfish. • At an age of 10-14 days clownfishes will undergo metamorphosis. • This is when clownfish “earn their stripes” and will begin to look like real clownfish.
Production methods • RAS tank systems used for Breeding Adults. • Prior to hatching, the eggs are moved to a small tank with very low water movement. • Round tank is preferred to enhance livability. • Tank should be fitted with both mechanical and biological filters.
Feeding • The first few days the fry should be fed live rotifers that have been prepped and fed phytoplankton. • After fry reach about 5mm start to feed brine shrimp. • By day 21 start feeding crushed flaked food and large brine shrimp.
Water Chemistry • The temperature should be around 24°C - 27°C. • Salinity should be about 28 ppt. • NH3should be less than 3 ppm. • pH should be kept about 8.0. • Larval tank should be round. • Use airstone for O2 delivery. • Fry should be kept in very low light prior to 21 days of age. • Slow well circulated water.
Advantages and Disadvantages • Advantages • Hardy fish • People tolerant • Easy to raise • Very colorful • Numerous species to choose from. • Disadvantages • Some can be very expensive • Most still wild captured. • Can be territorial. • Saltwater species
References • http://www.advancedaquarist.com/2007/2/fish • http://www.aquacon.com/Clownfish_saltwaterfish.html • shop.azaquaculture.com/...base/clownfish_culture/breeding_clownfish_1 • http://www.thereeftank.com/forums/f190/farming-clownfish-85571.html • www.orafarm.com/products/fish/clowns/ • www.marshreef.com/files/raising_clownfish.doc • https://www.worldnaturevideo.com/productlist/Ocean_DVD_category.html • http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/national/national-news/2009/07/02/214558/p1/Cute-%27Finding.htm