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History of education as a discipline

History of education as a discipline

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History of education as a discipline

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  1. History of education as a discipline • Study of how education developed over time • The past has profound effect on all aspects of our lives • Past events continue to shape the future • Critical examination of the past help us think creatively about the future –develop sound ideas and proposals • Looks at how education has come into being & developed over time in different societies

  2. The Nature and Content of History of Education • The Pedagogical Aspect • Part of the discipline of “ Science of Teaching” • Looks at & investigates ideas & practices which existed in the past - enable us to critically review them

  3. The Nature and Content of History of Education • The Historical Aspect - Involves the study of education & associated phenomena – as they manifested themselves during the course of history • The Transitory Aspect - Looks & describes education as it happened over time – past present & future

  4. The Nature and Content of History of Education… • The Spatial Aspect - Education takes place in experimental or personal educational space • The Variable Aspect - Deals with education which is changing all the time

  5. The Nature and Content of History of Education • The Social Aspect - Relationship between “History of Education’ and Social content of education- Process of Socialization • The Cultural Aspect - Connection between education & culture

  6. The Nature and Content of History of Education… The Normative Aspect - Teacher should be aware of the norms & values of society at the time The Historical Aspect - Involves the study of education & associated phenomena – as they manifested themselves during the course of history

  7. The Nature and Content of History of Education… • The transitory Aspect - Looks & describes education as it happened over time – past present & future

  8. Functions of History of Education • Inform teachers about education policies and social contexts • It can help to reveal a set of basic standards that determine & control human behaviour in education • It provides background knowledge required for one to take action in education

  9. Functions of History of Education • It helps one to choose intelligent action when presented with several alternatives • It enable one to interpret & find meaning in educational matters • It enables one to have some knowledge of the development of the education system (at least at a national level)

  10. Contribution to teacher training/ Professional Development • Contributes to teacher training - It can help to bring to light the questions which from the basis of daily teaching problems - It can help to explain the real nature of these questions by tracing their origins and subsequent development of their present form - It can help to expose the basic conflicts underlying beliefs and opinions about these issues

  11. Contribution to teacher training/ Professional Development • Provide teachers with background knowledge • Enriches teachers’ experience - Materials of History of Education – can be arranged to enrich experience & broaden one’s horizon

  12. Ancient /Western Education • Civilization • Writing of records • Great architectural monuments (Pyramids& Palaces) • State support for sculptures, Painting & Metal Work • People specialized as Traders, Artisans & Farmers • After 300BC Sumerians & Egyptians built schools to teach boys & girls • Initially boys & girls learnt reading & writing at home • Invented art of reading and writing- Priests served as teachers

  13. Ancient /Western EducationEgyptians invented the writing called Heiroglyphs - “the word of God” - written using picturesThey also had decimal system using several different symbols

  14. Other Middle Eastern Education • Civilization spread from Sumeria & Egypt to the Eastern shores of Mediterranean Sea • Between 1500 BC & 100BC these tribes developed the world’s first alphabet • Alphabets made writing easier - the first alphabet was devised by Phoenicians

  15. The Sumerians • Inhabited area between Tigris & Euphrates rivers • Built irrigation & water canals • Used to mould & bake bricks, pots, jars & agricultural tools • Designed simple plough (still used today in the Middle East) • Invented writing - Wedge-Shaped Marks - called Cuneiform • Children went to temples to master the writing • Pupils also studied arithmetic

  16. The Egyptians • Divided into various classes • Each class provided different education • Mechanics & sciences basic to mechanics were developed to serve the people in their attempts to control & modify environment • Egyptians developed through borrowing & from their own ingenuity, the art of written communication • Educated persons in society used the art of writing to preserve their profound & elusive thoughts • Achievements of peoples’ ancestors were transferred from an oral tradition to literary inheritance

  17. Greek Education/Educators • Socrates (470-399 B.C) • Famous for his method of learning by questioning (Socratic method) • Believed people should be taught how to think and reason for themselves • Emphasized knowledge through reasoning improves man’s existence • Important Virtues • Self Knowledge • Self-control & stead fastness of principles

  18. Plato (428/7-348/7 B.C • Emphasized the importance of reason (lead to idealism & rationalism) • Argued in his famous book ‘ Republic’ -nations are made of three basic social orders/classes • He continued Socrates’ (his teacher) work • His views on education were influenced by aristocratic ideals • Argued only best people were able to rule the nation • He emphasized the importance of training and education in producing ideal guardians • Three groups/social classes in society • Philosophers/Guardians • Soldiers • Artisans/Labourers/farmers

  19. Aristotle (384-322 B.C) • Greek educator-contributed tremendously to education • He was a disciple of Plato • He believed that the purpose of education is to serve & improve mankind • He further argued that the quality of education found in a country determine the society’s quality of education • Education Methods • Scientific and practical (should be proven) • Practical & implementable • Have aspect of objectivity • Flexible system (realistic to society)

  20. Aristotle (384-322 B.C) Cont’d….. • Aristotle like Plato viewed education in relation to the state - education being supremely part of the art of politics • For Aristotle, the purpose of education is to produce virtuous men, men who were in harmony in body, mind & spirit • Virtuous men requires progressive training, character training & intellectual training • Aristotle’s greatest work was in Politics & Ethics

  21. In Politics he argued... • Education should be regulated by law • Education is the affair of the state (state should regulate the character of public education) • He questioned whether education should be concerned with intellectual or moral virtue • Education should be able to convey things necessary in life but not all

  22. Greek influenced Roman education (end of 3rd century) Roman continued preparing people in schools of rhetoric Political careers were encouraged - certain subjects to be done: Grammar Astronomy Music Arithmetic Rhetoric In addition Roman education emphasized: Latin Literature History Mathematics Music Dialectics Roman Education/ Educator

  23. Quintilian (AD 35 - 95) • Most influential educator in Rome • Teacher of rhetoric • In “ The institutes of Oratory” (Institutio Oratoria) emphasized his views in education. • Quintilian was against corporal punishment • He argued, when studying a certain discipline the study should diversify the learner • Education should be modeled to suit the learner • After having studied the learner should be tested against his or her own proficiency • A learner should be rewarded appropriately

  24. The Role of the Church • Christian played important part in shaping European formal education (Middle Ages) • Influence lasted from A.D 400s (fall of Roman Empire) to 1500s • Christian parents expected to know the laws & beliefs of Christianity & teach them to their children • Religious authorities controlled most of formal education • Only those who become member of one of the religious orders received schooling • Youngsters were educated by priests or in the bishop’s household • Others were taught in monastery or cathedral schools • In monastery/cathedral subjects were: • Church music; Theology • Latin (Official language of the Western Church)

  25. Invention of Printing • Printing milestone in the history of education • 1440 - German metal worker - Johannes Gutenberg invented the movable type in Europe • More books, pamphlets become available • This led to acquisition of knowledge - needed to become teachers • Printing spread knowledge faster than before • Reformation • Religious movement started 1500s - gave birth to Protestantism • Religious leaders questioned the teaching of the church (RCC) demanded change • Some of these leaders include: Martin Luther & John Calvin

  26. Reformation Continued... • Reformation had far reaching political, economic & social effects on the people of the time • People expected to read the Bible • After the invention of printing - Bible & pamphlets become cheaply available • Elementary schools were established • Children of common citizens were taught to read the Bible in native languages • Christians taught morality & beliefs • RCC- Counter Reformation - established vernacular schools • More secondary schools were built and education spread rapidly

  27. John Locke (1632-1704) • From England - pioneer of educational idealists of the Age of Enlightenment • His ideas were articulated in the book “ Some thoughts on education” • Traced the physical development & general methods of education in children • Associated a new born child as an “empty slate” Tabula rasa

  28. John Locke (1632-1704)… • Advised parents & tutors to study the child by paying attention to his moods, interests, innate capacities. • Stressed the inculcation of good manners & virtuous habits of the mind as being the aim of education • To Locke this results into: • Well-bred young people • Wise in conduct and honest • Courteous and sincere in attitude

  29. Locke Continued…. • Function of education according to Locke is to help children to learn how to use her/his reason more & more in making decisions • Emphasized the idea of freedom as important in the process of learning • Children should not be burdened by rules • A tutor according to Locke should be a person of integrity & learning • take place of parents

  30. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 - 1778) • French philosopher born in Switzerland • He wrote a book entitled Emile (1762) • His writings played a major role in the French Revolution • Dealt with Socio-economic and Political issues • In Emile- he articulated his ideas of the Perfect goodness of a child • Looked at age distinction - in relation to the curriculum

  31. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712 - 1778) • Emile - divided into five parts • First & second part - (0-12) - education for the body and senses • Third part - (12-15) - Intellectual education • Fourth part - (15-20) - Moral Education • Fifth part - (Education of Women) • Rousseau believed that an ideal education can only take place in a suitable environment

  32. John Dewey (1859-1952) • American Philosopher • Led a philosophical movement called -Pragmatism - meaning & truth of ideas are determined by idea’s effects in practice and conduct • Developed his educational theories - at his elementary school in Chicago • School organized using - connections between everyday life & experience & formal work of the school

  33. John Dewey (1859-1952)... • Dewey’s philosophy become known as Instrumentalism - ideas are instruments • True ideas are those that work best for attainment of human goals • In education he called out for experimenting - trying out new methods • Opposed to traditional method of learning by memory - under the authority of teachers

  34. Dewey continued... • Education should be concerned with the mind • Learning be related to interests & experiences • Education should include the following: • Physical • Moral well-being • Intellectual development

  35. Dewey continued... • Schools have to be progressive • Education is a fundamental method of social progress & reform: • guiding children towards new values • assisting the development of intelligence in individual children thereby increasing society’s potential for its own transformation

  36. Teachers Roles • Understand the child (children in general & child in particular) • Select environment (choose from varieties of materials those with great capacity to induce growth) • No external imposition • To Dewey education is living not preparation for future living

  37. Indigenous/Traditional African Education • Existed before the advent of Colonial Education Africa • It was both formal and informal

  38. Aim& Objectives of Indigenous Education African education functionalist was a guiding principle African education regarded as a means to an end not an end in itself African education immediate introduction into society & preparation for adulthood

  39. Aim& Objectives… • African education emphasized the following: • Social responsibility • Job orientation • Political participation • Spiritual and moral values • Objectives - content & methodology is interwoven which encourages an easy transfer from theory to practice

  40. Indigenous/Traditional African Education • Indigenous/traditional African education - to be understood in the following contexts: • Content • Aims & objectives • Methods • Traditional African Education encompass the following: • Character development • Physical development • Vocational training • Intellectual development • Agricultural education • promotion of cultural heritage

  41. Youngpeople learn through: • Observation • Initiation • Folk tales • Practical activities (farming, fishing, weaving, cooking, carving, knitting, etc.) • Recreational subjects (wrestling, dancing, drumming, etc) • Intellectual training include; study of local history, legends, environment, poetry, reasoning, riddles, proverbs, story telling, etc • Education was an integrated experience • Education functional curriculum was relevant to needs of society • Unemployment was minimal

  42. Characteristics of Traditional African education • The great importance attached to it, & its collective & social nature • Its intimate tie with social life, both material and spiritual sense • Its multivalent character, both in terms of its goals & the means employed • Its gradual & progressive achievements, in conformity with the successive stages of physical, emotional & mental development of the child.

  43. Cardinal goals continued • To develop the child’s latent physical skills • To develop character • To inculcate respect for elders and those in position of authority • To develop intellectual skills • To acquire specific vocational training & development of a health attitude towards honest labour • To develop sense of belonging & to encourage active participation in family & community affairs • To understand appreciate & promote the cultural heritage of the community at large

  44. Julius Nyerere • Julius “ Mwalimu’ Nyerere – (1922- 1999) • He had a vision of education with social action , rich with possibility • His philosophy (Ujamaa- meaning family-hood) – emphasis was on self-reliance embedded in African Socialism

  45. Nyere’s Contribution in Education Nyerere defined education as the development of one's consciousness to: think, decide and, act. It should be aimed at improving people's physical and mental freedom, in order to increase their control over themselves, their own lives, and the environment in which they live.

  46. Nyerere’s Education for self-reliance Nyerere’s Philosophy – divided into two: Education for self-reliance Adult education, lifelong learning & education for Liberation Critique of formal education: formal education elitist in nature- catered for small group of people education divorces participants from society – for which they supposed to be trained the system breeds the notion that education is synonymous with formal schooling - people are judged & employed on the basis of passing exams & acquiring paper qualifications – Thus Nyerere Proposed - ..\Nyerere proposed the following changes.docx

  47. Nyerere’s vision in education for self-reliance Education should work for: Common good Foster cooperation Promote equality

  48. Education in Tanzania • Have a lot in common with/to Namibia • Education received in different ways/ methods (initiation ceremonies) • Learning by living and doing • Different skills were taught • Shape children to be people acceptable in community • Norms and values of society transferred

  49. Education in Tanzania • Every adult was a teacher • Content different to European education/the purpose had similarities • Prepare people to leave and serve the society • Transmit norms, values, knowledge, skills & attitudes of the society

  50. Colonial education in Tanzania • Destroyed the foundations of African Education • Considered formal • Inculcated values of colonial society • Train individuals for the service of the colonial state • Education modeled after the British system • Emphasised individualistic of instincts of man • Colonial education introduced attitude of human inequality • Domination of the weak by the strong • Change of traditional knowledge by knowledge from different societies