Harvard Referencing at York St John University Guide to citing resources for CFAP students
Referencing sources • Why do we provide references? • Acknowledge the work of other writers • Avoid plagiarism • Demonstrate breadth of reading • Enable others to trace your sources and lead them onto further information
Plagiarism What is it? • A deliberate attempt to pass of the work of others as your own • Includes copying sections of text without putting ideas into your own words • Failing to acknowledge whom the information used was written by Consequences • Could lead to a loss of marks or more serious action
Why Harvard? • Most commonly used system internationally • Used by most academic institutions • Ease of use for both author and reader – no footnotes or chapter references
Book • Author(s), editor(s) (up to three with surname and initials only) • Year of publication • Title and subtitle (if any) - underlined , in bold , or in italics • Series and individual volume number (if any) • Edition if not the first, for example 2nd ed. • Place of publication if known • Publisher
Some examples 1 One author: • Vine, R. (2008) New China, new art. London, Prestel. Two authors: • Sturken,M. & Cartwright, L. (2009) Practices of looking: an introduction to visual culture. New York, Oxford University Press. Three authors: • Weintraub, L., Danto, A. & McEvilley, T. (1996) Art on the edge and over: searching for art’s meaning in contemporary society 1970s-1990s. Litchfield, Art Insights.
Some examples 2 4 authors or more: • Burton, J. et al (2007) Pop art: contemporary perspectives. New Haven, Yale University Press.. Editors: • Coutts, G. & Jokela, T. eds (2008) Art community and environment:educational perspectives. Bristol, Intellect. Series and editions: • Chadwick, W. (2007) Women, art and society. 4th ed. World of art. London, Thames & Hudson.
Chapter in book • Author of chapter/section • Year of publication • Title of chapter/section • The word In: • Author/editors of collected work (up to three) • Title of collected work – underlined, in bold, or in italics • Place of publication • Publisher • Page numbers of section referred to
Example Gille, W. (2001) Lives and loves. In: Mundy, J. ed. Surrealism: desire unbound. London, Tate, pp. 136-169.
Journal article • Author/s of the article (up to three, with surname and initials only) • Year of publication • Title of the article • Title of the journal – underlined, in bold, or in italics • Volume and part number, month or season of the year • Page numbers of article
Examples • Buxton, P. (2006) The art of showing off. Design week, 21 (7) February, pp. 14-15. • Hunt, I. & Green, M. (2004) The secret theory of drawing. Art monthly, 301, pp. 27-28. • Caughy, C. et al (2006) Ceramic sculpture of Lars Westby. Ceramics: art and perception, 65 (1) January, pp. 34-49.
Visual information Visual information, photographs and reproductions of works of art • In-text citation: Nauman (1966) in Fineberg (1995, p.317) • Full reference: Nauman, Bruce (1966) Neon templates of the left half ofmy body, taken at ten inch intervals. Neon tubing on clear glass tubing frame, 1770.8 x 220.9 x 150.2 mm. In: Fineberg, J.(1995) Art since 1940: strategies of being, p. 317. London: Laurence King.
Online images: visual information, photographs and illustrations • Include the following information, in the following order: • (1) Title of image, or a description – underlined, in bold, or in italics and followed by a full stop • (2) Year – in brackets • (3) The words Online image or Online video – in square brackets • (4) The words Available from – followed by a colon • (5) The Internet address – in chevrons • (6) Filename including extension – followed by a comma • (7) The word Accessed and the date you viewed the image – in square brackets
Example • Bruce Nauman: Human/Need/Desire (1983) [Online image] Available from http://www.oxfordartonline.com[Accessed 11 February 2009].
Original artworks You should include the following information in this order: • Artist • Year art work was produced – in brackets • Title of art work – underlined, in bold, or in italics • Material type – in square brackets and followed by a full stopCommon material types are: ceramic / drawing / etching / linocut / lithograph / painting / photograph /sculpture / woodcut • The words Held at The location of the gallery, museum, etc. – followed by a full stop Example: • Hepworth, B. (1953) Heiroglyph [sculpture]. Held at Leeds Civic Quarter Art Gallery
Audiovisual materials Films, videos and DVDs You should include the following information, in this order: • Title – underlined, in bold, or in italics and followed by a full stop • Year (for films the preferred date is the year of release in the country of production) – in brackets • Director’s name – note that the director’s name is not written surname first) – followed by a full stop • Place of production – followed by a comma • Production company name • Medium and then format – separated by a colon, in square brackets and followed by a full stop
Examples • Rachel Whiteread. (2005).TheEYE. London, Illuminations [video: DVD].(Note the series) • Blast Theory (2005) Can you see me now? Brighton, Blast Theory [video: DVD].
More examples Exhibition catalogues - where there is no author use the gallery or museum, e.g. • Museum of Modern Art (1968) The machine. New York, MOMA. It is the custom to capitalise the names of art movements, e.g. • Haskell, B. (1984) Blam! The explosion of Pop, Minimalism and Performance 1958-64. New York, Whitney Museum of American Art..
Electronic journal article • Author/editor • Year – in brackets • Title of article • Title of journal – underlined, in bold, or in italics • The word Internet – in square brackets • Date of publication • Volume number • Issue number • Pagination or online equivalent • The words Available from • The Internet address – in chevrons • The word Accessed and date you viewed the web page – in square brackets
Example • McCarthy, D. (2006) Andy Warhol's Silver Elvises: meaning through context at the Ferus Gallery in 1963. The art bulletin [Internet], June, 88 (2), pp. 354-72. Available from: <http://firstsearch.oclc.org/FSIP?db=WilsonSelectPlus > [Accessed 5 December 2006].
Website • Author/editor • Year – in brackets • Title – underlined, in bold, or in italics • The word Internet – in square brackets • Version if available (for example, update 2 or version 4.1) • Place of publication • Publisher (if ascertainable) • The words Available from • The Internet address • The word Accessed and the date you viewed the web page – in square brackets
Examples Whole web sites Institute of Contemporary Arts (2006) Institute of Contemporary Arts. [Internet] London, Institute of Contemporary Arts. Available from: < http://www.ica.org.uk/?lid=1> [Accessed 6 December 2006]. Document on a web site Arts Council England (2006) Aspire. [Internet], London, Arts Council of England. Available from: <http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/publications/phpizURVp.pdf > [Accessed 6 December 2006].
Quotations and citations • Quotations - direct copy of author’s words Should always be placed in inverted commas and include details of the author, year and specific pages number/s from which you’ve taken the quote ‘Hirst’s interest in contemporary society is further reflected in collaborative pop music projects’ (Woods, 2001, p32) OR Woods, (2001, p32) highlights that ‘Hirst’s interest in contemporary society is further reflected in collaborative pop music projects’
Citations • Citations - Use of something an author has said but put into your own words • Should always include details of the author and the year, e.g. Woods (2002) identifies that Hirst’s interest in modern society is demonstrated by his work with pop groups.
Secondary referencing • If you wish to quote an author quoted by another author. e.g you want to quote Robinson having read the quote in Smith Robinson (2003, cited in Smith 2005 p16) advocates the use of …. • In the reference list at the end of the assignment you only need a reference for Smith as you haven’t looked at the original source by Robinson • Only original sources should be included in reference list
Further help • The York St John Harvard Guide to Referencing • http://www.yorksj.ac.uk/library/guide/citing/index.aspx
Further help 2 • If you would like further help with Harvard referencing, please ask for a one-to-one session • email@example.com