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Using Overlay Networks for Proximity-based Discovery

Using Overlay Networks for Proximity-based Discovery

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Using Overlay Networks for Proximity-based Discovery

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  1. Using Overlay Networks for Proximity-based Discovery Steven Czerwinski Anthony Joseph Sahara Winter Retreat January 13, 2004

  2. This Talk • Goals • Build a decentralized, self-organizing discovery service • Describe how P2P overlay networks are leveraged • Compare against traditional approaches • Investigating using infrastructure resources to augment client / server architectures • REAP and MINNO showed code & data migration helps • Need a way to find infrastructure resources • Outline • Background on proximity-based discovery • Compass architecture • Experimental results

  3. I’m in Tahoe, Locate a nearby Web2Cell Proxy Web2Cell Proxy Instances Proximity-based Discovery • Locate a nearby service instance, according to a specified proximity metric • Service definition • Provide specific functionality or content • Data storage servers, computation servers • Uniquely defined by a name • Instances are inter-changeable

  4. Motivation • Applications requiring discovery • Benefits of using overlay networks • Does not rely on manual configuration or multicast • No need for special discovery servers • Better scalability and fault tolerance

  5. Overlays Applied to Discovery • Recast problem as object location & leverage DOLRs • Servers = objects, Instances = object replicas • Nodes hosting service instances… • Compute key by hashing service name • Publish: store instance information along the path to root • Clients making queries • Compute key by hashing service name • Query: search on path to root, returning first instance • Proximity-based discovery arises from local convergence property • Paths to same root starting from nearby nodes quickly converge • Overlay must use PNS (Proximity Neighbor Selection)

  6. Found it! Example Publish and Query • Publish and query for service with key 6a0 • Routes converge at node 6ad Identifier Space Network Distance Space Publish 891 6b2 Query a45 6f3 6ad Query a45 6a3 6a3 Publish 6ad 6b2 891 6f3

  7. Compass Architecture • Built on Bamboo • Proximity metric is estimated RTT • Publish messages are periodic for soft-state • Tracks fixed number of instances per service • Memory consumption depends on number of unique services • Lottery used for eviction • Tickets based on estimated network distance • Publish messages are aggregated / batched • One message per publish period per service • To break ties when fulfilling queries • Lottery used for selecting among multiple instance entries • Tickets based on inverse estimated network distance

  8. Strawmen Discovery Services Discovery Server • Hierarchical • One discovery server per stub domain • All queries and publishes route to nearest server • Server returns matching instances in round-robin • Unfulfilled queries routed to next nearest server • Close to ideal, but requires configuration • Random • Client uniformly chooses an instance from all possible • Close to worst-case PublishInstance Service Instance Clients Query AS Stub C AS Stub A AS Stub B

  9. Experiments • Used Modelnet to emulate wide-area topology • Transit-stub topology generated by INET • Nodes • 500 clients and 500 instance generators • 100 services, divided into 4 density classes (.1,.5,1,5 per AS stub) • Emulated on cluster with 40 physical hosts • Trials • 30 minute warm-up period followed by 1 hour of queries • Gateways are chosen in stub to speed warm-up • Client load generators • Clients issue two queries per minute • Queries generated randomly • Metric: Instance penalty • Distance from client to discovered instance minus client to hierarchical’s instance

  10. Accuracy Compared to Hierarchical Median instance penalty (ms) All .1 per Stub .5 per Stub 1 per Stub 5 per Stub Service density class Usually within 10 ms of ideal

  11. All .1 per Stub .5 per Stub 1 per Stub 5 per Stub Accuracy Compared to Random Median instance penalty (ms) All Service density class Much better than random, even for low densities

  12. Why Some Results are Suboptimal • Examine path traveled by query • Categorize by its intersection with stub containing optimal instance Percentage with suboptimal type Never Entered Ended In Passed Through Started In Stayed In Greatest problem is paths converge too late

  13. Load Balancing Across Instances 1.0 0.8 0.6 CDF 0.4 0.2 Window = All Window = 10 min Window = 2 min 0.0 -5 5 0 10 Ideal load minus observed per minute per instance Requests are distributed to service instances evenly

  14. Query Scalability Query messages handled per node per min Total queries issued per min Compass can use much less powerful hosts

  15. Conclusions • Overlay networks work well for discovery • Median latency usually less than 10 ms from ideal • Load is distributed evenly among service instances • Reduces query load by 1/200th • No need for manual configuration • Future work • Investigate larger network topology • Incorporate virtual coordinates • Integrate into REAP and MINNO research

  16. Backup Slides

  17. What About Security? • Security still unresolved in overlay networks • Malicious nodes could • Drop all queries and publish messages • Mount DoS by constantly returning target as answer to queries • Publish false instances to lure clients • Duplicate pointers would dropping messages • Integrating PKI would prevent false instances

  18. Compared to Hierarchical

  19. Compared to Random