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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

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  1. Table of Contents • Chapter Preview • 7.1 The Air Around You • 7.2 Air Pressure • 7.3 Layers of the Atmosphere • 7.4 Energy in Earth’s Atmosphere • 7.5 Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere • 7.6 Winds

  2. Chapter Preview Questions • 1. Wind, or moving air, is caused by • a. Earth’s rotation. • b. Earth’s revolution. • c. uneven heating of Earth’s surface. • d. even heating of Earth’s surface.

  3. Chapter Preview Questions • 1. Wind, or moving air, is caused by • a. Earth’s rotation. • b. Earth’s revolution. • c. uneven heating of Earth’s surface. • d. even heating of Earth’s surface.

  4. Chapter Preview Questions • 2. The force of the atmosphere pushing against Earth is called • a. air pressure. • b. temperature. • c. wind. • d. humidity.

  5. Chapter Preview Questions • 2. The force of the atmosphere pushing against Earth is called • a. air pressure. • b. temperature. • c. wind. • d. humidity.

  6. Chapter Preview Questions • 3. Air pressure near the ocean is ____ air pressure at the top of a high mountain. • a. greater than • b. less than • c. exactly the same as • d. nearly the same as

  7. Chapter Preview Questions • 3. Air pressure near the ocean is ____ air pressure at the top of a high mountain. • a. greater than • b. less than • c. exactly the same as • d. nearly the same as

  8. Chapter Preview Questions • 4. Air exerts pressure equally in • a. only one direction. • b. two directions. • c. three directions. • d. all directions.

  9. Chapter Preview Questions • 4. Air exerts pressure equally in • a. only one direction. • b. two directions. • c. three directions. • d. all directions.

  10. Suppose you dove into a pool. The deeper you went, the more water there would be above you. The weight of the water above causes the pressure to increase as you go deeper. Like water, air has weight, and pushes on you from all directions. Considering the example above, how do you think the pressure of the air above you would change if you climbed a mountain? How do air pressure and temperature vary in the atmosphere?

  11. Greek Word Origins atmos Vapor, gas Atmosphere

  12. Greek Word Origins exo- Out, outer Exosphere

  13. Greek Word Origins Anemometer, barometer, thermometer meter Measure

  14. Greek Word Origins photo- Light Photochemical

  15. Greek Word Origins thermos Heat Thermosphere

  16. Apply It! Review the Greek origins and meanings in the table. Then predict the meaning of exosphere. Revise your definition as needed. Sample: The exosphere is the outer layer or portion of the thermosphere; from Section 3.

  17. End of Chapter Preview

  18. Warm-Up • What are three ways in which the atmosphere is important to life on Earth?

  19. Warm-Up • How would Earth be different without the atmosphere?

  20. Warm-Up • What can individuals do to improve air quality?

  21. Section 1: The Air Around You Lesson Objectives You will be able to describe the composition of Earth’s atmosphere. You will be able to state how the atmosphere is important to living things. You will be able to identify what causes smog and acid rain.

  22. Section 1: The Air Around You California Standards 6.4.e Students know differences in pressure, heat air movement, and humidity result in changes in weather. 6.6.b Students know different natural energy and material resources, including air, soil, rocks, minerals, petroleum, fresh water, wildlife, and forests, and know how to classify them as renewable or nonrenewable.

  23. Section 1: The Air Around You • What is the composition of Earth’s atmosphere? • How is the atmosphere important to living things? • What causes smog and acid rain?

  24. What is Atmosphere?

  25. What is Atmosphere? Click film to play video

  26. Earth’s Atmosphere Click film to play video

  27. Why is the Atmosphere Important? Click film to play video

  28. Why is Air Quality Important? Click film to play video

  29. Composition of the Atmosphere • Earth’s atmosphere is made up of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and many other gases, as well as particles of liquids and solids.

  30. Oxygen • Click the Video button to watch a movie about oxygen.

  31. Links on the Atmosphere • Click the SciLinks button for links on the atmosphere.

  32. More on Air Pollution • Click the PHSchool.com button for an activityabout air pollution.

  33. End of Section: The Air Around You

  34. Warm-Up • As altitude increases, how does air pressure change? How does density change?

  35. Warm-Up • What changes in air pressure would you expect if you carried a barometer down a mine shaft?

  36. Warm-Up • Why is it hard to breathe at the top of a mountain?

  37. Section 2: Air Pressure Lesson Objectives You will be able to identify some properties of air. You will be able to name instruments that are used to measure air pressure. You will be able to explain how increasing altitude affects air pressure and density.

  38. Section 2: Air Pressure California Standard 6.4.e Students know differences in pressure, heat air movement, and humidity result in changes in weather.

  39. Section 2: Air Pressure • What are some of the properties of air? • What instruments are used to measure air pressure? • How does increasing altitude affect air pressure and density?

  40. Air Pressure Click film to play video

  41. Air Pressure • There is a column of air above you all the time. • The weight of the air in the atmosphere causes air pressure.

  42. Measuring Air Pressure Activity • Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and access Active Art about measuring air pressure.

  43. Measuring Air Pressure • Air pressure pushes down on the surface of the mercury in the dish, causing the mercury in the tube to rise. The air pressure is greater on the barometer on the right, so the mercury is higher in the tube.

  44. Measuring Air Pressure • This diagram shows an aneroid barometer. Changes in air pressure cause the walls of the airtight metal chamber to flex in and out. The needle on the dial indicates the air pressure.

  45. Air Pressure and Altitude • Air pressure decreases as altitude increases.

  46. Altitude and Density • The density of air decreases as altitude increases. Air at sea level has more gas molecules in each cubic meter than air at the top of a mountain.

  47. End of Section:Air Pressure

  48. Warm-Up • List the four main layers of the atmosphere, beginning with the layer closest to Earth’s surface?

  49. Warm-Up • What do scientists use to determine where a layer begins and ends?

  50. Warm-Up • How does temperature change as height increases in the troposphere? Compare this to how temperature changes with height in the stratosphere.