Nutrition 101 Micronutrients, Fruits, and Vegetables
What are micronutrients? • Vitamins and minerals which your body only needs in small amounts as opposed to macronutrients (fat, protein, carbohydrate) that your body needs many grams of each day. • Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains provide you with many micronutrients. • The “Dietary Guidelines for Americans” (can be found online) suggest that people should eat more fruits and vegetables than any other food group. • Fruits and vegetables can help reduce your risk of certain diseases. • Most foods provide you with more than one nutrient.
What do vitamins do? • Water-soluble: vitamins essential to our health and can dissolve in water making them easily secreted. Since they are not stored in our body, they must be consumed on a regular basis. They aid in energy metabolism, and many aid in metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids.
Water Soluble Vitamins • B vitamins: help body use the macronutrients for fuel • Thiamin: whole grains • Riboflavin: milk, whole grains, and dark green leafy vegetables • Niacin: available in meat, poultry, legumes, whole grains, potatoes and tomatoes • Biotin: variety of foods, especially egg yolks • Pantothenic acid: beef, poultry, whole grains, potatoes, tomatoes, and brocolli • Vitamin B6: starchy vegetables, meat, fish, poultry, noncitrus fruits, soy products, and fortified cereals • Vitamin B12: meat, fish, poultry, shellfish, milk, cheese, eggs, and fortified cereals • Folate: fortified grains, green leafy vegetables, legumes, and seeds
Water Soluble Vitamins • Vitamin C: • an antioxidant • a cofactor in collagen formation • a cure for the common cold • aids in disease prevention. • Found in citrus fruits, cabbage-type vegetables, dark green vegetables, cantaloupe, strawberries, lettuce, tomatoes, potatoes, and mangoes • Foods with water soluble vitamins should be cooked using little or no water in order to conserve the vitamin because the vitamin will leak into the water
What do vitamins do? • Fat-soluble: vitamins that are absorbed in our fat meaning that we can store them in our liver and adipose tissue. This means that we do not need them in frequent doses like water-soluble vitamins.
Fat Soluble Vitamins • Vitamin A: • essential for vision, healthy epithelial tissues, and growth • Sources: milk, cheese, cream, butter, eggs, liver • Vitamin D: • The “Sunshine Vitamin,” synthesized with the help of sunlight • Aids in mineralization of bones • Sources: milk, butter, juices, cereal, chocolate, veal, beef, egg yolks, and fatty fish
Fat Soluble Vitamins • Vitamin E: • functions as an antioxidant • Source: polyunsaturated plant oils (margarine and salad dressing), green leafy vegetables, whole grains, egg yolks, nuts, and fatty meats • Vitamin K: • main role is in synthesis of blood clotting proteins. • Sources: liver, green leafy vegetables, milk, and cabbage-type vegetables. The bacteria in our GI tracts can also make vitamin K
Minerals • What do minerals do in our body? • Influence fluid balance • Regulate blood pressure • Role in muscle contraction • Direct nerve impulse transmission • Used to make hormones • Aids in building strong bones and teeth • Each one has specific roles in body
Examples of Minerals • Macrominerals: needed in larger amounts than trace • Calcium-- the most abundant mineral in the body • Magnesium • Phosphorus • Potassium • Sodium • Chloride • Sulfur
Examples of Minerals • Trace minerals: only need a little bit • Copper • Chromium • Zinc • Iron • Iodine • Selenium • Manganese • Fluoride
Fruits • a fruit is usually any sweet-tasting plant product, especially those associated with seeds: • apple • banana • peach, • pear, • grape • oranges • watermelon • pineapple • lemon, lime • and many more
Vegetables • an edible plant or part of a plant, but usually excludes seeds and most sweet fruit. This typically means the leaf, stem, or root of a plant. A vegetable is any savoury or less sweet plant product • carrot • corn • broccoli • celery • cucumber • lettuce • and many more
Key Nutrients that can be found in Fruits & Vegetables: • Calcium: Calcium is essential for healthy bones and teeth. It is also needed for normal functioning of muscles, nerves and some glands. • Fiber: diets rich in dietary fiber have been shown to have a number of beneficial effects, including decreased risk of coronary heart disease. • Folate: Healthful diets with adequate folate may reduce a woman’s risk of having a child with a brain or spinal cord defect. • Iron: Needed for healthy blood and normal functioning of all cells.
Key Nutrients that can be found in Fruits & Vegetables: • Magnesium: Magnesium is necessary for healthy bones and is involved with more than 300 enzymes in your body! Inadequate levels may result in muscle cramps and high blood pressure. • Potassium: Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain a healthy blood pressure. • Sodium: Needed for normal cell function throughout the body. Most diets contain too much sodium which is associated with high blood pressure. • Vitamin A: Keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps protect against infections. • Vitamin C: Helps heal cuts and wounds and keeps teeth and gums healthy.
Top 10 reasons to eat more fruits & vegetables: • 1) Color & Texture. Fruits and veggies add color, texture … and appeal … to your plate. • 2) Convenience. Fruits and veggies are nutritious in any form –fresh, frozen, canned, dried and 100% juice, so they’re ready when you are! • 3) Fiber. Fruits and veggies provide fiber that helps fill you up and keeps your digestivesystem happy. • 4) Low in Calories. Fruits and veggies are naturally low in calories. • 5) May Reduce Disease Risk. Eating plenty of fruits and veggies may help reduce the risk of many diseases, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and some cancers.
Top 10 reasons to eat more fruits & vegetables: • 6) Vitamins & Minerals. Fruits and veggies are rich in vitamins and minerals that help you feel healthy and energized. • 7) Variety. Fruits and veggies are available in an almost infinite variety…there’s alwayssomething new to try! • 8) Quick, Natural Snack. Fruits and veggies are nature’s treat and easy to grab for a snack. • 9) Fun to Eat! Some crunch, some squirt, some you peel … some you don’t, and some growright in your own backyard! • 10) Fruits & Veggies are Nutritious AND Delicious!
What are phytochemicals? • broad name for a wide variety of compounds produced by plants found in fruits, vegetables, beans, grains, and other plants. Each phytochemical comes from a variety of different plant sources and has different proposed effects on, and benefits for, the body. It is estimated that there are up to 4,000 phytochemicals. • Phytochemicals have many different names that are known in the community-- antioxidants, flavonoids, phytonutrients, flavones, isoflavones, catechins, anthocyanidins, isothiocyanates, carotenoids, allyl sulfides, polyphenols
Whole Grains • According to the USDA, whole grains are foods that contain the whole grain kernel: bran, germ, and endosperm. They contain fiber which aids in digestion. • Note: difference between whole wheat and whole grain: • Whole wheat contains only the endosperm because the bran and germ are removed during processing, which means the majority of the vitamins and fiber are removed.
Whole Grains • Ways to add more whole grain to your diet: • Switch to whole grain rice and pasta instead of white. • Choose whole grain breads (remember: that’s different from whole wheat) • Look for whole grain cereals and oatmeal
True or False? • Vitamins provide fuel for energy • False, vitamins do not provide calories, but without some vitamins your body can be tired and lack energy • We need to eat foods high in water-soluble vitamins often. • True, these vitamins are easily excreted in our urine so we need to consume these healthy foods frequently • Trace minerals are not as important as macrominerals. • False, all minerals are vital to your body’s functions.
True or False? • Fruits and vegetables are not a good source of Vitamin A. • False, they are a good source of vitamin A-- Keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps protect against infections • Soybeans are a good source of the phytochemicallutein. • False, soybeans are a good source of the phytochemicalisoflavone