The causes of, key people in , and common outcomes of Revolutionary activities. The American and French Revolutions
Defining Revolution • ‘Revolt” and “Revolution” - in your books write down your definition for these words • http://dictionary.reference.com/ • In your opinion, what are some common reasons people might revolt? • What kind of person do you think typically leads a revolution? • Do you think a revolution is something that happens quickly or over time? Why? • Once a government has been overthrown, how long do you think it would take for new leaders to establish a different form of government and make it run effectively?
Revolutions throughout time • http://www.pbs.org/marieantoinette/revolution/what_is_revolution.html • The above map portrays a selection of major revolutions or revolution attempts that occurred in the 200 years following the American Revolution. Though their causes and outcomes were all different, the revolutions on this map all represent attempts at forcible government overthrown by those being ruled.This global perspective provides an insight into humans’ historic struggle to govern, collaborate, and thrive together. • Revolution has been around as long as people have, changing the way we think, work, worship, and live. But: • Does a revolution always have a definite and identifiable (specific) outcome? • Is somebody always the winner, and somebody else the loser?
Who Leads Revolutions? • A common misconception is that revolutions happen when ordinary people join together and rise up against authority. • For a revolution to really take hold, a large section of a population typically does need to feel a pressing need for societal (community) change. • Revolutions are historically led by people who are not "just plain folks." • Revolutionary leaders usually possess something extra: additional education, connections to existing authority, a leadership position within the repressed community, or simply a profound charisma or oratory gift that helps them influence, persuade and lead. • This doesn't mean that revolutionary leaders do not empathize with their followers; indeed, many have lived the same struggles. But this is not always the case.
Beyond Political Revolutions • The term "revolution" can refer to many types of massive change that affect society in extreme ways. • The British Agricultural Revolution, which happened between the 16th and 19th centuries, refers to a time of extraordinary agricultural output, mostly due to better farming methods and mechanization. This upturn in agricultural success supported a huge population growth, which freed a lot of workers to leave farming and pour into the workforce. • The concept of revolution also reaches into other areas of daily life. The Italian Renaissance of the 15th century was a time when the way in which the Western world created art, wrote poetry, designed architecture. • Social revolutions include the Sexual Revolution, when the invention of the birth control pill in 1960 offered women access to reliable contraception. Social scientists theorize that this pharmaceutical development impacted sexual behaviour, attitudes, and more throughout the Western world, and redefined women's views of education and career. • Finally, the computer on which you're reading this was developed during the Digital Revolution, which refers to an ongoing transformation that began in the early 1980s. The plummeting cost and rapid improvement of digital devices made these tools more widely available, affecting the way we do our jobs, entertain ourselves, and even communicate with one another.
Summary - Revolution • What is a revolution? • Who usually leads a revolution? • Name one revolution discussed in class and briefly describe it.
Answers: • Revolution • a drastic and far-reaching change in societal ways of thinking and behaving; sudden or momentous change in a society and social structure • The overthrow of a government and its replacement by another • Leaders • No one is born a revolutionary leader, and there is no one set formula for how people become revolutionary leaders. Each revolutionary leader is a complex mix of personal life experiences and broader social experience. Revolutionary leaders can be of any race, nationality, either gender, and come from many different backgrounds. • Revolutionary leaders usually possess something extra: additional education, connections to existing authority, a leadership position, or just intense charisma or a public speaking gift that helps them influence, persuade and lead.
American and French Revolution • From an historical perspective, the French and American Revolutions have greatly influenced revolutionary activity on a global scale and that the impact of these historical events continues in the world even today.
(1754–81, Revolutionary War 1775). The American Revolution
The American Revolution • The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free of the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America.
Liberty – The American Revolution • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-5602751196414323436# • (53.56 mins)
Colonies • Colonists migrated from Europe to the Americas: • for economic reasons and • religious freedom • Life was difficult for the first settlers . They built cities from scratch, and brought civilization to the wild lands. • Before and during the French and Indian War, from about 1650 to 1763, Britain essentially left its American colonies to run themselves.
Europe’s View of The Colonies • Europeans viewed the colonies as their property. • The colonies existed in order to serve their home nation. • The colonies produced crops and goods that could then be shipped back to their mother country in order to enrich those who lived there. • The colonies were expected to remain loyal to their mother country. • Colonies were controlled by governors which were appointed by the crown.
Colonies’ View of Europe • Many of the inhabitants of the colonies had come to the Americas in order to escape persecution, for their religious or extreme political views. • Many of the colonists had been born in the Americas, and had never visited Europe. • They considered themselves Americans, and not Europeans. • Increasingly their loyalty was to the colony, and not to the distant mother country. • Colonies began to tire of the restrictions placed on them by their mother countries. These restrictions favoured their parent nations, but made life more difficult for the colonies.
The British Empire Goes To War • In 1760 a new king came to power in Great Britain named King George III. • George III used the powerful British Navy to wage war with France. • These wars brought the British Empire vast new territory, including all of Canada, as well as all the land in North America East of the Mississippi River. • This war, which greatly enlarged the territories of Great Britain proved to be very costly, and nearly bankrupt the national treasury. • King George III was as a result in desperate need of raising funds to keep his government operating. To do this, he looked to the colonies in the Americas.
The Stamp Act • To help cover the cost of the war between Great Britain and France, British officials began to establish new taxes in the Colonies. • In 1765 a tax was passed by Great Britain known as the stamp act. • This law required all colonists to pay a tax to Great Britain on all of the printed materials that they used, newspapers, magazines, and even playing cards. • Colonist were outraged, and responded by boycotting all British goods. • They also attacked officials who were sent by Great Britain to enforce the stamp act, and burned the stamps in the street. • Many of the colonies sent representatives to a special meeting in New York, which they called The Stamp Act Congress. • As a result, the British Parliament repealed the stamp act just one year later in 1766. • Parliament in Great Britain had lost the battle over the stamp act.
Summary - Revolution • Who are the colonies (place) and colonists (people)? • Why did the colonists migrate to the Americas? • Describe how life was for the colonists? • Describe how the colonists (teenagers) viewed Europe and Europeans (parents). • Describe how Europe and the Europeans (parents)viewed the colonists (teenagers). • Why did King George III introduce the Stamp Act? • How did the Americans (colonists) react to the Stamp Act? WHY?
The Boston Massacre • The Parliament in Great Britain was determined to assert their control over the colonies. • In 1766 they passed a new decree that reaffirmed their right to pass laws regarding the colonies. The next year they passed a number of new taxes, including a tax on glass, lead, paper, and tea. • The colonies were again outraged, and many refused to pay them. • In order to enforce these new tax laws, British officials requested military troops to aid them. • These military troops outraged the colonists. • In the Winter of 1770 a small group of colonists in Boston were taking out their frustration with the troops by taunting them, and throwing snowballs at them. In retaliation, these soldiers opened fire, killing four of the Bostonians. This event became known as the Boston Massacre. • The events of the Boston Massacre were spread quickly by newspapers throughout the colonies further angering colonists. • As a result, Great Britain was forced to once again repeal all of the new taxes they had enacted. However, in order to send a message that they were still in charge, they left the tax on tea in place.
The Boston Tea Party • The tax on tea that Parliament had passed greatly effected the tea business in the colonies. • The price of tea in the Americas increased, making it more difficult for tea growers, producers, and shippers to survive. • In order to insure that British companies would not be hurt by this new tax, Parliament passed a law that exempted British companies from having to pay the tax. • This meant that these companies could sell their tea cheaper, almost guaranteeing that companies based in the Americas would go out of business. • In protest a group of individuals dressed up as Native Americans boarded a cargo ship in Boston Harbor, and dumped its entire load of tea into the harbor waters. This event became known as the Boston tea party. • In response to the Boston tea party the Parliament in Great Britain passed a number of new laws. • These new laws became known by the colonies as the intolerable acts.
The First Continental Congress • As a result of the intolerable acts colonists in the Americas become increasingly convinced that they needed to take more aggressive steps in order to protect themselves, and their liberty. • On September 5 , 1774 56 delegates were sent from each of the 13 colonies to meet in Philadelphia as representatives of The First Continental Congress. For the first time in history, the 13 colonies were working as a group, and not as individual colonists. • The First Continental Congress passed resolutions stating that the British Parliament did not have the right to pass laws in the colonies, and only had the right to regulate trade between the colonies and Great Britain. • They further resolved that by December of the same year they would cease importing any goods from Great Britain, and that by September of the following year, they would cease exporting any goods to Great Britain.
Loyalist Strongholds Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral].
Tensions Build • In April of 1775 tensions in the Colonies were very high. Many of the 13 colonies had begun to raise armies in order to defend themselves against the possibility of war with Great Britain. Colonists in Boston had suffered more than many of the other colonists. • In response to the Boston Tea Party, Great Britain had closed down the Boston Harbor. The result was that life in Boston had become very difficult. Many who lived there had lost their jobs. British troops were also being sent to Boston in mass. In order to house these troops, Bostonians were forced to let them live in their homes, and eat their food. • As tensions rose, officials in Great Britain ordered the governor of Massachusetts to send troops to Boston. • The British soldiers were the best trained military force on Earth. They also had superior weapons. • Colonists in Boston had prepared themselves for any military actions by Great Britain. They had formed a group of soldiers known as minutemen.
Military Hostilities • The Battle of Lexington and Concord took place April 19, 1775, when the British sent a force of roughly 1000 troops to confiscate arms and arrest revolutionaries in Concord. They clashed with the local militia, marking the first fighting of the American Revolutionary War. The news aroused the 13 colonies to call out their militias and send troops to take Boston. • The Battle of Bunker Hill followed on June 17, 1775. While a British victory, it was at a great cost; about 1,000 British casualties from a garrison of about 6,000, as compared to 500 American casualties from a much larger force
Bunker Hill- June 1775 • The British suffered over 40% casualties
The Shot Heard Around The World • As the two armies faced each other, someone fired a shot. No one knows who fired it, or which side they were on. This shot became known as the shot heard around the world, and it touched off a conflict that would help further the tensions between Great Britain and her colonies. • As the British Troops began advancing towards where the ammunition and weapons were being stored, Paul Revere, and William Dawes rode ahead of them, shouting ‘The Redcoats are coming’. • Their warning allowed the colonists the time they needed to get the minutemen in place along the route. Hiding behind trees, and buildings, these minutemen were able to easily defeat the British soldiers who were marching in formation, in the open. • The defeat of the British military humiliated Great Britain, and energized the colonists, showing them that it was possible to win their independence militarily.
The Olive Branch Petition • In May of 1775 The Second Continental Congress met to discuss the ongoing problems between Great Britain and the Colonies. • A small group of radicals, lead by John Adams felt that war with Great Britain was inevitable. However, in an effort to avoid war, they passed a resolution known as the Olive Branch Petition. • This petition was sent to King George III, and addressed the wrongs that had been perpetrated against the colonies. • King George III refused to even read the petition, and declared that the colonies had come out in open rebellion against the crown, and against Great Britain.
Common Sense • In January of 1776 a man by the name of Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet entitled Common Sense. • It outlined the reasons that he felt why the colonies should part company with Great Britain and form their own independent nation. • Common Sense helped greatly to change the opinions of important and influential colonists who had been holding out hope for resolving the conflict with Great Britain without going to war.
The Declaration of Independence • The Second Continental Congress charged Thomas Jefferson with the responsibility of writing a declaration of independence that would be sent to Great Britain. • On July 4th, 1776 this declaration was officially adopted by the Continental Congress, and a new nation was born. • The Declaration of Independence stated the belief that a government had a responsibility to the people it governed, and that if they abused their responsibilities, that the people who were ruled had the right to rebel.
A Revolutionary War • The American Colonies who were among the poorest and weakest nations on Earth, had decided to take on the most powerful of the day. The Continental Congress appointed General George Washington as their commander. • A long, difficult war would follow, which would devastate the colonies. They were simply not equipped to fight such a powerful military force. Many times, it appeared as though the British were just a few steps away from wining the war. However, the American soldiers held out.
The Battle of Yorktown (1781) Count de Rochambeau AdmiralDe Grasse
Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
The war continues • As the war carried on year after year, the Americans began to win important battles, embarrassing the British. • As this happened, the French, who were upset about the territory they had lost to Great Britain became convinced that the Americans could win, and sent ships and supplies to help the colonists. • Spain who had also lost territory to Great Britain also sent aid to the colonies. • By August of 1781 the British were forced to surrender in Yorktown Virginia.
Summary of the American Revolution Battles • http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-5602751196414323436#docid=5907460563985929059 • http://www.mrnussbaum.com/amflash2.htm • http://teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/americanrevolution/
The Articles of Confederation • After wining their independence in 1781 the Continental Congress established the Articles of Confederation. • These articles stated that: • each colony was to act as an independent state • that each state had the right to pass laws within their territories. • This central government had very little authority. It could not pass taxes, and as a result, the nation amassed massive amounts of debt, which it could not pay off.
The Constitution of the United States • After debating the problems with the Articles of Confederation, the representatives in Philadelphia decided they would create a new constitution, that would form a new central government. • After several months they signed the Constitution of the United States into law, creating the United States of America. • This constitution guaranteed certain rights to the people, helping to insure that they were treated fairly. • Shortly after the constitution was signed, 10 amendments were added to it, known as the bill of rights, which granted even more freedoms to the people of The United States. • This new nation was to be headed by a President, rather than a monarch. This President would be elected by the legislature, which was in turn elected by the people. This type of government is known as a republic.
American Revolution Key People http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/revolution/terms.html
(1789 – 1799) French revolution
The Revolution Begins Main Idea Problems in French society led to a revolution, the formation of a new government, and the end of the monarchy. • Reading Focus • What caused the French Revolution? • What happened during the first events of the Revolution? • How did the French create a new nation?
Background to the Revolution Preview • For centuries, the quality of life in Europe had been determined by the status that one held. This status could not be attained, but was instead determined by the family to which someone was born. If you were born to a poor family, your life would be one of poverty. No matter how hard an individual worked, it was impossible to rise above this fate. • The wealthy enjoyed a life of ease, comfort, and recreation. Day after day, they pursued the pleasures of European society, while 97% of Europe’s people struggled just to survive. • This gap between the wealthy and the poor created resentment. Those at the bottom saw the wealthy grow increasingly richer, while they got nothing.
1776 – America Rebels • Then in 1776 something unthinkable happened. A group of people at the bottom of society rebelled against those who were at the top, and what was more remarkable, they won. The British Colonies in America declared their independence and then enforced it by beating back the most powerful military on Earth. • This sent shockwaves throughout Europe. And gave hope to many poverty stricken peasants, who wanted to see the powerful aristocracies of Europe fall. If America could do it, why couldn’t they. Why couldn’t they rebel, and create a new, more fair society
Interactive Map of the French Revolution and Napoleon • http://my.hrw.com • http://www.worldology.com/Europe/napoleonic_wars_imap.htm
Causes of the Revolution Long-standing resentments against the monarchy • Inequalities in society • Existing social and political structure • Called the Old Order, or ancient régime • King at the top and estates under him • King Louis XVI, shy and indecisive • Unpopular, self-indulgent queen, Marie-Antoinette • Rest of French society divided into three classes, called estates
The French Estates • Nowhere was the divide between the wealthy and poor greater, than in France. The French Aristocracy were among the wealthiest individuals in all of Europe. They controlled vast tracts of land, huge amounts of money, and had power that was unchecked by a Parliament as in Great Britain. • The poor in France were suffering greatly. They had been abused, mistreated, and ignored. They had been forced to work on the estates of the wealthy, with very little pay, and in terrible conditions. They were starving, sick, dirty, tired, and growing more resentful with each passing year. • French society was divided into three separate castes known as estates. The first estate was made up of priests, and religious leaders. Those belonging to this estate occupied the highest level in French society. • The second estate was made up of the nobility. • The third and lowest estate consisted of everyone else, over 97% of the population of France.
First Estate Second Estate Third Estate • Roman Catholic clergy • One percent of the population • Exempt from taxes • Owned 10 percent of the land • Collected rents and fees from the land • Bishops and other clergy grew wealthy • Nobility • Less than 2 percent of the population • Paid few taxes • Controlled much wealth • Held key positions • Government • Military • Lived on country estates • Largest group—97% of the population • Bourgeoisie—city-dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals • Sans culottes—artisans and workers • Peasants—poor with little hope, paid rents and fees The Three Estates Varied widely in what they contributed in terms of work and taxes
Turmoil And Unrest In France • In 1774 Louis XVI a 19 year old prince came to the throne as the King of France. His 18 year old wife was named Marie Antoinette. • King Louis XVI inherited a massive amount of debt from his predecessors. • He further increased the debt of the French Government by supporting the American Revolution in its fight against France’s bitter rival, Great Britain. King Louis XVI became desperate to raise funds to pay off the debts of France. • In order to pay of these debts, he decided that we would tax the first and second estates, which had always been exempt from paying taxes before. • These estates refused to pay the new taxes.
Estates – General • In 1789 King Louis XVI summoned a group known as the Estates-General to meet in Versailles to discuss the matter of taxes. • The Estates-General was a body of people representing each of the three social estates in France. They had not been called together since 1610. • King Louis XVI hoped that by calling them together they could solve the problems of debt facing the nation. • The Estates-General had other plans however. They wanted to use the meeting to take power from the King, and address the social ills that they felt were plaguing them.
Enlightenment Ideas http://www.mrdowling.com/705french.html A Financial Crisis • Inspiring new ideas from Enlightenment philosophers • Great Britain’s government limiting the king’s power • American colonists rebelled successfully against British king • New ideas changed government and society in other countries • Severe economic problems affected much of the country • France in debt, spending lavishly, borrowing money, and facing bankruptcy • Hailstorm and drought ruined harvest; harsh winter limited flour production • People hungry and angry; clergy and nobility no help Further Causes