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  1. Salt By Kathryn Dullinger

  2. Basic info Salt dates back farther than the bible (2,250 BC) salt has originated from literally everywhere Salt is vital for survival and thus it is so engrained in so many societies

  3. What is Salt? Compound of Na+ and Cl- Many types of salt: rock salt, organic salt, and refined salt Found in salt springs, underground, dried up lakes (Salt lake), and seawater World has a lot of salt, uses 240 million tons a year U.S. has enough salt stored to last for the next 100,000 years

  4. History Humans followed animals to salt licks Once they started hunting animals they stopped going straight to salt licks Domestication of animals led to invention of salt block for animals and humans Trails became settlement areas later Westminster

  5. History: Importance of Extraction Salt water Fuel Bronze Age and brine springs Iron age and Briquetage Pottery vessels Pillars

  6. History: Egyptians & Nomads Preservation inventors Arid landscape, Nile may be low, need backup Travel long distances Increasing of trade Gold and slaves for salt Salting the dead mummifaction Salting meats fish

  7. History: Celts Miners Well known by Romans and Egyptians, called Salt people Towns named after salt Salzberg Salting pork Ham fights

  8. History: Romans Refined usage of salt Salt pans Paid soldiers in salt—where the word “salary” is derived Salt roads “Via Salaria” Didn’t heavily tax salt Wanted everyone to have access to salt

  9. History: Venice and Genoa • Fought for salt trade after fall of Roman empire • Venice won and owned for 10 years, then lost it to Bartholomeu Dias who extrapolated on trade through shipment by sea • Salt owned by Portugal, Spain, France, England (near coast) • America came up with own saltwork

  10. Industrial Age Erie Canal Airtight jars by Nicolas Appert in 19th century Canning, rapid freezing, and refrigeration Meatpacking industry changes consumption of salt Types of production/extraction Solar salt production Pressure vessels Vacuum evaporation plants Mining Solution mining

  11. How do they work? Solution Mining: Pumphouse, and solubility Vacuum Evaporation: Brine, pressure, and crystallization Solar: slow, evaporation

  12. Beneath the earth All layers to the surface When drilling, first found oil Then found salt Oil is found near salt because of pressure and gas build-up Large underground salt beds Cut and blast mining Insert corps Salt used mainly for food, water, oil, cosmetics, dyes and textiles Otherwise known as EVERYTHING Empires = Monopolies

  13. The Big Boys Salt industry of Japan Salt Association European Salt Producers (EuSalt) Dow Chemical Breaking down salt Discovered electrolysis Vinyl Cargill Bought out everybody Salt mining industry Mine 19 tons every minute and a half

  14. The Big Boys Cargill mines Benches Why they abandon mines Machines not men Morton Transport, quantity, and marketing Non-caking solution Patents on container Girl with umbrella, recognizable to over 90 % of housewives in 1990

  15. Consumption Necessary for life 14,000 uses 71% for deicing roads 11% for softening water 8% for chemical salt 5% food grade and agricultural salt Over 400 million metric tons produced each year Earns more than 1 billion in sales revenue

  16. Health, Safety and Enviroment Not that many deaths since machines, pretty well recorded for fatalities Energy replenishment Salt in excess or deficiency in the diet What’s wrong with refined salt Plant salinization Salt can be a good fertilizer if applied right Can kill if not Fun times with water tables

  17. Sustainable, organic, CSA’s? Can help as a growth promoter for plant-life More disease resistant Kills weeds Salt uses are more sustainable than using chemicals to clean things Can help out with organic agriculture if applied correctly

  18. FUN FACTS/ SALT LEGENDS Gandhi’s walk to Dandi to defy the British law Used for medicinal purposes in ancient civilizations Egyptian monks thought that salt could ignite sexual desire German brides had salt sprinkled on their shoes for fertility In Germany and Sweden spilling salt was a bad omen Salt was involved in religious rituals Sick people traveled to salt bathes to revive their circulation and relive stress Smelling salts were derived from the belief that smelling how salt water would “clear the mind” The END