Albert EllisRational Emotive Behavior Therapy Born in Pittsburgh 1913. Died in New York 2007. Raised in New York City. Started his career in literature as a writer. Ph.D. from Columbia in 1947.
Albert Ellis • Began as a Psychoanalyst. • Became President of the North American Adlerian Society. • First book on RET, “How to Live with a Neurotic” appeared in 1957. • 54 books, over 600 articles published.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) • When a highly charged emotional Consequence (C) follows a significant Activating Event (A), “A” may seem to be the cause of “C” but really is not the cause. Instead, emotional consequences are largely created by “B”, — the individual’s Belief system.
REBT • When an undesirable Consequence occurs, such as severe anxiety, this can usually be quickly traced to a person’s Irrational Beliefs. When these beliefs are effectively Disputed (at point D), by challenging them rationally,the disturbed consequences disappear and eventually cease to reoccur. • Thus you have an (E) Effective New Philosophy, emotion, and behavior, the final form of Ellis’ REBT theory is ABCDE.
REBT • The fatal foursome that most deeply affect us. • Excessive Anxiety may easily lead one to become agitated, intimidated or afraid. • Anger/defensiveness leads one to become defensive, irritated, or argumentative. • Depression/burnout leads one to a lack of care. • Guilt may lead one to become remorseful or accept blame.
REBT—Philosophical Underpinnings • Ellis is influenced by the philosophies of Confucius, Lao-Tsu, Buddha, Epictetus, Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, Emmanuel Kant, Arthur Schopenhauer, R.W. Emerson, John Dewey, George Santayana, and Bertrand Russell; focusing specifically on their philosophies of human happiness (Ellis, 5). • Most apparent is Ellis’ Philosophy of free will. • He minimizes the irrelevances of the past and focuses on the present attitude of the client and the client’s choice to change that attitude via his/her free will.
Irrational Beliefs • We should challenge the idea that we must have approval in almost everything we do. • Give up the notion of trying to be thoroughly competent. Do not delude yourself with the idea that if you accomplish your goals, you will be a better person. • Get rid of the idea that certain people are bad and should be punished for their sins. \
Irrational Beliefs • Combat the idea that it is terrible if things are not going the way you would like them to go. Calmly deal with the problem. • Reject the hypothesis that human unhappiness is externally caused. Most of my misery is created by my own irrational behavior. • Rid yourself of the idea that if something is or may be dangerous, you should be terribly worrisome and upset by it.
Irrational Beliefs • Stop trying to run away from many life difficulties and self-responsibilities. • Determine what are the real necessities of life and proceed, no matter how difficult to act upon them. • Rid yourself of the idea that you need someone or something stronger than you to rely on. • Because something greatly influenced us in the past, it doesn’t have to determine our present behavior. • The influence of the past can be overcome.
Irrational Beliefs • What other people do is NOT that vitally important to us, and we do not have to make every effort to change them to be the way we think they should be. • Drop the idea that one has virtually no control over emotions, that we are victims and cannot help how we feel.
What Makes REBT Brief? • REBT assumes that a large percent of clients can quickly realize that they are effectively upsetting themselves when they act neurotically. • The ABCD’s of REBT can be quickly learnt and applied by the client for therapeutic use.
What Makes REBT Brief? • REBT is “Active-Directive” in that the therapist attempts to demonstrate how the client can alleviate their disturbances rapidly. • REBT quickly focuses on the immediate practical problems which are upsetting the client as well as long-term issues and “underlying personality problems”
What Makes REBT Brief? • By using the cognitive, emotive and behavioral methods, the clients internalize healthy philosophies towards themselves, the world and others, and can refrain from upsetting themselves. • Dysfunctional beliefs are changeable and REBT focuses on changing these self-destructive philosophies.
REBT Song by Lyrics by Ellis • "Whine, Whine, Whine"(To the tune of "The Whiffenpoof Song," by Guy Schull) • I cannot have all of my wishes filled- Whine, whine, whine! I cannot have every frustration stilled- Whine, whine, whine! Life really owes me the things that I miss, Fate has to grant me eternal bliss! And since I must settle for less than this- Whine, whine, whine!
Love Me, Love Me, Only Me!" (To the tune of "Yankee Doodle"). • Love me, love me, only me or I'll die without you! Make your love a guarantee, so I can never doubt you! Love me, love me totally; really, really try, dear; But if you must rely on me, I'll hate you till I die, dear! Love me, love me all the time, thoroughly and wholly; Life turns into slushy slime 'less you love me solely! Love me with great tenderness, with no ifs or buts, dear: For if you love me somewhat less, I'll hate your goddamned guts, dear!
MAYBE I'LL MOVE MY ASS(After the Ball by Charles K. Harris) • After you make things easy And you provide the gas; After you squeeze and please me, Maybe I'll move my ass! Make my life nice and breezy, Fill it with sassafras! And possibly, if things are easy, I'll move my ass!
Goals for Self-Actualization • Nonconformity and individuality. • Social interest and ethical trust. • Self-awareness. • Acceptance of ambiguity and uncertainty. • Tolerance. • Commitment and intrinsic enjoyment. • Creativity and originality.
Goals for Self-Actualization • Self-direction. • Flexibility and scientific outlook. • Unconditional acceptance of oneself and others. • Risk-taking and experimenting. • Long–range hedonism.
Cognitive Psychology • This is the study of our mental processes in the broadest sense: thinking, feeling, learning, remembering, making decisions and judgments, etc. • How do we process information as a way to solve problems. • Arron Beck — Known for using cognitive psychology to treat depression.
Cognitive-Social Learning • People evaluate a situation according to certain internal expectancies such as personal preferences, and this evaluation affects their behavior.
Locus of Control - J. Rotter • Locus of Control is a prevalent expectancy, or cognitive strategy, by which people evaluate situations. • Internal locus of control people are convinced they can control their own fate. • External locus of control people believe they do not have control over their own fate.