UNIT Unit-1 • Teaching Aim • Reading I • Reading II • Extended Activities
Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 1 Essentials of Business 1. Cognitive Information(认知信息): Basic Concept of Business 2. Language Focus(内容重点) — Key Words: I. production, manufacture, service, merchandise, trade, land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship, distribute, accomplish, perform, go bankrupt, creditor, venture, profit; II. company, firm, a business, wholesaler, retailer, competitor, rival, compete, go into business, go out of business
Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 1 Essentials of Business — Phrases: I. relate ... to/with, be extracted ... from, be responsible for, make ... of value, look for, decide on, up to, refer to, pay for, distribute ... to/among;II. in bulk, compete for, keep ahead of, have an advantage over, give an edge on — Word Study: risk, perform, replace, limit, share — Useful Structures: V+ ing as subj. “where ...” relative clause not ... unless ... “whether ...” concessional clause — Grammar: Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Teaching Aim Teaching Aim Unit 1 Essentials of Business 3. Communicative Skills (交际技能) — Expressions: Expressions of “Meeting People” — Reading: Timetables 4. Phonetic Review (语音复习): Front Vowels
Reading I UNIT Reading I Unit 1 Essentials of Business • Pre-reading • Text • Background Information • New Words and Expressions • Exercises • Post-reading
Pre-reading Pre-reading Unit 1 Essentials of Business • Pre-reading I • Pre-reading II
Pre-reading I Pre-reading-I Unit 1 Essentials of Business Brainstorming: Work with your group and think out as many words, phrases or expressions as possible about business. market sell salesman supermarket goods businessman profit joint-venture stock exchange order manager hotel enterprise restaurant invoice bank customer merchant
Pre-reading II Pre-reading-II Unit 1 Essentials of Business Pairwork: Discuss the following questions with your partner. 1. Are you interested in business? Why or why not? 2. What activities do you think can be labeled as business activities? 3. Have you ever been involved in any business activities before? Describe it. 4. What do you think is important for success in today’s business world? Keys: 4. These points are often thought to be key to business success: good management; adequate planning; sufficient financial resources; healthy cash flow; controlled spending and the ability to collect money owing; effective marketing; a good product and service.
Text 1. Business is the human activity related to material things. It is necessary for civilization. It is found in all societies, even the simplest ones. Business may include the production of goods（生产的产品）making airplanes, building buildings, and constructing paper boxes are examples of production. It can also provide the financing for these activities. Lending money（贷款）, trading stocks and bonds,（交易股票和债券）and selling insurance policies（出售保险政策）relate to（涉及）the securing of capital（固定资本）for business activities. Other forms of business include ‘merchandising(推销）, which is the selling of products（销售的产品）, and providing various services, such as accounting,（会计） distributing（分发）, and repairs. Business, then, is the activity of producing and distributing （生产和销售）goods and services. Text-1 Unit 1 Essentials of Business The Nature of Business商业的本质
1.Business • Business can mean buying or selling goods or services. That is, the activity of making money by producing or buying and selling goods, or providing services. When it is used in this meaning, it is uncountable. It can also be used to refer to an organization such as a company, shop, or factory that produces or sells goods or provides a service. When it is used in this meaning, it is countable.
2. Becoming a successful business • Becoming a successful business takes time, energy, motivation, and a bit of luck. Getting an idea, testing an idea, finding the right people and help, locating access to capital and credit, understanding and using technology, and planning ahead are just a few of the steps to the process. Throughout the various stages of the business lifecycle — starting, financing, expanding, training and counseling, management assistance, advocacy, and eventually closing a business — the right help at the right time can make all the difference between failure and success. Besides access to capital and credit, business owners need management and technical assistance, training and education, counseling and user-friendly access to information all along the way.
3. 辨析capital & money: （资本和资金） • Capital is the money or property（财产） that you use to start a business （开始做生意）or to make more money. Money is what you earn by working and you use in order to buy things. • e.g. The recycling industry（循环利用产业） is making huge capital investments（巨额资本的投资） in equipment. • Do you have enough money to pay for the sandwiches? • Therefore, collocations related with “capital” are: • capital intensive industries (资本密集产业); venture/risk capital (风险资本); intellectual capital (智识资本), etc. • Collocations related with “money”, on the other hand, are: • money bags (有钱人); Money makes a mare go. (有钱能使鬼 推磨); money worshiper (金钱至上主义者).
Text Text-2 Unit 1 Essentials of Business 2. In our study of business, it is necessary to understand the four basic factors of production. These four factors are land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. What is meant by these four terms?(术语）
Text Text-3 Unit 1 Essentials of Business 3. In order to produce things, it is necessary to use land. Here, the term land is used in the most general way（最普遍的方式）. It refersnot onlytoa piece of real estate（一块地产） where we might build a factory, but it also means all the raw materials used for production. Some of these raw materials are found on the earth’s surface, such as trees, which yield wood for lumber. Other raw materials are found under the earth’s surface in mines and oil wells, and still other raw materials may be extracted from the air. All the raw materials for production come from the land, the air, and the oceans.
Text Text-4 Unit 1 Essentials of Business 4. Labor refers to the use of mental or physical work to produce goods. Most labor changes raw materials into finished products（成品） and then distributes these to buyers. In industrialized countries（工业化国家）, labor is generally more mental than physical. For example, in both manufacturing and agriculture, machines accomplish the very tiring physical work（累人的体力工作）that unskilled laborers（非技术劳工） used to do.
Text Text-5 Unit 1 Essentials of Business 5. In other countries, computers programmed robots（计算机编程机器人）and other forms of data processing equipment（其他形式的数据处理设备）perform（完成） many of the jobs which used to require a lot of mental labor. Therefore, to a certain extent（在某种程度上）the next factor, capital, can be used to replace labor or reduce the amount of physical and mental labor that humans have to use in order to conduct business（开展业务）.
Text Text-6 Unit 1 Essentials of Business 6. In everyday language, capital means several things. The most general meaning is wealth or money. But it also refers to the equipment that money purchases（buy). As one of the basic factors of production, capital is all of the things that workers use in production and distribution. It includes their tools, machines, and buildings such as factories and warehouses（工厂和仓库）where goods are produced and stored. Capital, therefore, refers to anything that helps to produce and distribute goods.
Text Text-7 Unit 1 Essentials of Business 7. Putting together land, labor, and capital to make something of value（具有价值）, is called entrepreneurship. The entrepre‘neur is the person responsible for controlling and directing（ the other three factors. The entrepreneur does not make things with his own hands unless he is also a worker. In a business the workers take orders from the entrepreneur. He is the leader, and the employees follow his direction.
Text Text-8 Unit 1 Essentials of Business 8. Entrepreneurship includes some other important activities. The entrepreneur is responsible forinitiating（start) business activity. He must begin his business by bringing together the land, labor, and capital. Next, he must manage the business(经营管理）by deciding the general policies for business operation. In order to be successful, an entrepreneur must also be innovative（革新）. He must look for new products or new ways of making things, and new methods of distribution, or he must offer new services. He must be able to decide on（做出决定） the value of things that other people invent（发明）, whether it is a new toy, a new method of filing, or a new way of advertising. Finally, he bears all the risks of the business.
Text Text-9 Unit 1 Essentials of Business 9. Everyone connected with a business shares（业务份额）in the risks of the business. When a company goes bankrupt,（破产） that is, becomes unable to pay its debts, it causes problems for many people. It is hard for the employees who may have to seek work（找工作）elsewhere; the customers must look for another place to buy the products; creditors（债权人）（主要是指预付款者，有权请求他方为特定行为的权利主体，是指那些对企业提供需偿还的融资的机构和个人，包括给企业提供贷款的机构或个人（贷款债权人）和以出售货物或劳务形式提供短期融资的机构或个人）usually lose some of the money to the company. But the entrepreneur takes the biggest risk（承担）if the business succeeds or fails. He must pay them up（支付）to the limit of his ability to pay. If he is skillful — and lucky — the money he receives from his business venture（企业）will pay for（赔偿） the land, labor, and capital, and there will still be some extra money （额外的钱）remaining for him. This extra money is the profit. If the money he receives from the business venture is not enough to pay all of the costs, the difference is the loss.
Background Information Background Information Unit 1 Essentials of Business 1. Business Business can mean buying or selling goods or services. That is, the activity of making money by producing or buying and selling goods, or providing services. When it is used in this meaning, it is uncountable. It can also be used to refer to an organization such as a company, shop, or factory that produces or sells goods or provides a service. When it is used in this meaning, it is countable.
Background Information Background Information Unit 1 Essentials of Business 2. Becoming a successful business Becoming a successful business takes time, energy, motivation, and a bit of luck. Getting an idea, testing an idea, finding the right people and help, locating access to capital and credit, understanding and using technology, and planning ahead are just a few of the steps to the process. Throughout the various stages of the business lifecycle — starting, financing, expanding, training and counseling, management assistance, advocacy, and eventually closing a business — the right help at the right time can make all the difference between failure and success. Besides access to capital and credit, business owners need management and technical assistance, training and education, counseling and user-friendly access to information all along the way.
New Words and Expressions New Words and Expressions Unit 1 Essentials of Business • New words and Expressions • Notes • Language and Culture Focus
New Words and Expressions New words and Expressions Unit 1 Essentials of Business 1. relatev. to connect 联系；涉及 2. construct v. to put or fit together; to form 构成 3. financev. to work in the business of providing money 理财；融资 4. stock n. [usu. pl.] a portion of capital of a business company held by an investor 股份 5. bondn. a certificate issued by a government or a company acknowledging that money has been lent to it and will be paid back with interest 有息债券；公债
New Words and Expressions New words and Expressions Unit 1 Essentials of Business 6. insurancen. guarantee of compensation for loss, damage, sickness, etc. in return for regular payment 保险 7. securev. to make sure of getting (sth.) 获得 8. capitaln. money used in business 资本 9. merchandisev. to buy and sell (goods) 买卖 10. accounting n. the system of recording and summarizing business and financial transactions 会计学
New Words and Expressions New words and Expressions Unit 1 Essentials of Business 11. distribute v. to separate (sth.) into parts and give a share to each person 分发 12. factorn. any of the forces, conditions or influences that helps to produce a result 因素 13. entrepreneurn. a person who starts or organizes a commercial enterprise 企业家 14. referv. to mention or speak of (sb. or sth.) 提及 15. estaten. a large area of land developed for a specific purpose, e.g. for houses or factories 作某种用途的地区[real estate 房地产]
New Words and Expressions New words and Expressions Unit 1 Essentials of Business 16. yieldv. to produce 出产 17. extractv. to take or get (sth.) out 取出 18. manufacture v. to make goods on a large scale 大量制造 19. accomplish v. to succeed in doing 完成 20. datan. information collected for examination and consideration 数据 21. process v. to perform operation on (sth.) in computer (用计算机)处理
New Words and Expressions New words and Expressions Unit 1 Essentials of Business 22. conductv. to do; to carry on (business) 经营 23. purchasev. to buy (sth.) 购买某物 24. warehouse n. a building where goods are stored 货仓 25. initiatev. to put into operation 开始；实施 26. innovativea. introducing or using new ideas, techniques 革新的 27. sharen. the part belonging to or owed by a particular person 股份
New Words and Expressions New words and Expressions Unit 1 Essentials of Business 28. bankrupta. not having enough money to pay debts 破产的 29. creditorn. a person or organization to whom money is owned 债权人 30. limitn. a point or line beyond which something does not extend; boundary 限度 31. venturen. a project, esp. a commercial one where there is a risk of failure (尤指有风险的)工作项目 32. profitn. financial gain 利润
New Words and Expressions New words and Expressions Unit 1 Essentials of Business 1.relate ... to/with... to connect (two things) in thought or meaning 将……联系起来 2.refer to to mention or speak of (sb./sth.) 提到；涉及 3.be extracted from to take (sth.) from (sth.) 从……中提取 4.be responsible for to have the duty of looking after sth. 对……负责；负责(某事) 5.make …of value to make (sth.) worthwhile or valuable 使某物更有价值
New Words and Expressions New words and Expressions Unit 1 Essentials of Business 6.look for to search for 寻找 7.decide on to choose (sth. or sb.) after thinking carefully 作出决定 8.distribute … to/among …to separate (sth.) into parts and give a share to each person or thing 在……中分发；分配 9.pay for to give money for 为……而付钱
Notes Notes Unit 1 Essentials of Business 1. provide the financing for: conduct the business of providing money for. 2. insurance policies: documents which show the condition of an insurance contract (保险单). 3. the securing of capital（固定资本）Here it means “getting money for some business”. 4. to a certain extent（在某种程度上）to a certain degree. 5. up to: as far as; to and including. e.g. Please count from 1 up to 10. Everyone works, from the boy who sweeps the floor up to the President.
Exercises 1-Exercises Unit 1 Essentials of Business • Exercise I • Exercise II • Exercise III • Exercise IV • Exercise V • Exercise VI • Exercise VII
Exercise I 1-Exercise-I Unit 1 Essentials of Business I. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions. 1. What does “business” mean in the text? 2. What are the four basic factors of production? 3. What does the term “land” in this text refer to? 4. What does the term “labor” refer to in this passage? 5. What is the general meaning of “capital” in everyday language? 6. What does the term “capital” refer to according to this passage? 7. What is called entrepreneurship? 8. What responsibilities should an entrepreneur take? 9. What kind of problems will a company cause to people when it goes bankrupt? 10. When will the entrepreneur make a profit and when will he suffer a loss?
Exercise II 1-Exercise-II Unit 1 Essentials of Business II. Choose the best answer to each of the following questions. ( ) 1. What may business include? a. Selling products. b. Delivering products. c. Manufacturing products. d. All of the above. ( ) 2. Which of the following is NOT categorized as “Land”? a. Oil. b. Trees. c. Factories and warehouses. d. A piece of real estate. d c
Exercise II 1-Exercise-II Unit 1 Essentials of Business ( ) 3. Which statement is NOT true according to the passage? a. Capital not only means money or wealth but also refers to the equipment that money purchases. b. The entrepreneur only needs to give orders and never makes things with his own hands. c. In a highly industrialized country, labor is generally more mental than physical. d. Customers also share in the risks of business. b
Exercise II 1-Exercise-II Unit 1 Essentials of Business ( ) 4. Which of the following business activities occur first? a. Deciding the general polices for business operations. b. Bearing all risks of the business. c. Looking for new products or new ways of making things. d. Bringing together the land, labor, and capital. ( ) 5. Who takes the biggest risk when a business goes bankrupt? a. The creditor. b. The customer. c. The employee. d. The entrepreneur. d d
Exercise III 1-Exercise-III Unit 1 Essentials of Business III. Complete the following statements with the words or expressions you have learned in this text. 1. ________ is the activity of making and distributing goods and ________ . 2. ________ refers to the sources of raw materials needed for production. 3. ________ is the use of mental or physical work to produce ________. Business services Land Labor goods
Exercise III 1-Exercise-III Unit 1 Essentials of Business Capital 4. ________ means not only wealth, but all the things that workers use in production and distribution which are purchased with money. 5. ________________ is the activity of controlling and directing the other factors. 6. If the money a company receives is not enough to pay for all of the costs, the difference is the________. Entrepreneurship loss
Exercise III 1-Exercise-III Unit 1 Essentials of Business 7. When a company goes__________, it is unable to pay its________. 8. An ___________ company is one which continues to provide new goods and services. 9. The entrepreneur ________ business activities by bringing together land, labor, and capital to begin a new ________ venture. bankrupt debts innovative initiates business
Exercise IV 1-Exercise-IV Unit 1 Essentials of Business IV. Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings provided. 1. ___________ to separate (sth.) into parts and give a share to each person 2. ___________ to succeed in doing 3. ___________ to make goods on a large scale 4. ___________ to do； to carry on (business) 5. ___________ not having enough money to pay debts 6. ___________ to make sure of getting (sth.) 7. ___________ to buy and sell (goods) distribute accomplish manufacture conduct bankrupt secure purchase
Exercise IV 1-Exercise-IV Unit 1 Essentials of Business capital 8. ________ money used in business 9. ________ to work in the business of providing money 10. ________ financial gain 11. ________ to put into operation 12. ________ the part belonging to or owed to a particular person 13. ________ information collected for examination and consideration 14. ________ to take or get (sth.) out 15. ________ to perform operation on (sth.) in computer finance profit initiate share data extract process
Exercise V 1-Exercise-V Unit 1 Essentials of Business V. Put the following expressions from the text in the blanks to complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary. 1. With the help of the Internet, you can ______________ specific research information in every country from Australia to the United States of America. 2. A company employee is subject to imprisonment(坐牢）for ______________ 5 years and a $10, 000 fine if he is involved in a bribe (贿赂). 3. A survey（check） of medical costs reveals that 16 percent of U.S. families go into debt each year to ______________ their medical treatment. 4. The oil which is ______________ sunflower seeds is used for cooking. look for up to pay for extracted from
Exercise V 1-Exercise-V Unit 1 Essentials of Business 5. The real sin against life is to destroy beauty, even one’s own, for that has been put in our care and we are ________________ its wellbeing. 6. The terrorists’ blast in the market has led to many small businesses _________________. 7. In this report the rise of crime is ______________ the increase in unemployment. 8. Straightening the road has reduced the risk of accidents and ____________________ has made it safer. 9. The speaker ______________ the young man sitting at the back as an up-and-coming business tycoon(正在崛起的商业巨头). 10. While still not able to overcome these problems, he has failed ______________ some much-needed measures on his own. responsible for going bankrupt related to to a certain extent referred to to decide on
Exercise VI 1-Exercise-VI Unit 1 Essentials of Business VI. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the underlined words with appropriate words or phrases from the text. 1. Some raw materials may be taken from the air. ________________________________________________ 2. To do business successfully involves a lot of factors. ________________________________________________ 3. The entrepreneur should stand all the possible losses of the business. ________________________________________________ be extracted conduct bear all the risks
Exercise VI 1-Exercise-VI Unit 1 Essentials of Business 4. This letter is about the sale of the house. ________________________________________________ 5. If the company cannot pay its debts, many people will lose their jobs. ________________________________________________ 6. He failed to obtain the top job with the bank. ________________________________________________ relates to goes bankrupt secure
Exercise VII 1-Exercise-VII Unit 1 Essentials of Business VII. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given prompts to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the model. 1. Prompt : I/not/can/take/risk (n.)/ leave/him/alone/short/time Model: I couldn’t take the risk of leaving him alone even for a short time. a. they/will/go ahead/plans/risk (n.)/offend/local/people b. anyone/travel/without/passport/run/risk/arrest c. businessman/crazy/risk (v.)/money /investment/that Key: a. They will go ahead with their plans, even at the risk of offending the local people. b. Anyone travelling without a passport runs the risk of being arrested. c. The businessman is crazy to risk his money on an investment like that.
Exercise VII 1-Exercise-VII Unit 1 Essentials of Business 2. Prompt: we/perform (v.)/duty/no matter/happen Model: We should perform the duty no matter what happens. a. mayor/perform (v.)/open /ceremony/international /movie /festival b. every/decent/person/know/one/always/perform (v.) what/promise c. news/say/company/perform (n.)/disappoint/last year Key: a. The mayor will perform the opening ceremony for the International Movie Festival. b. Every decent person should know that one should always perform what one promises. c. The news said that the company’s performance was disappointing last year.
Exercise VII 1-Exercise-VII Unit 1 Essentials of Business 3. Prompt: we/replace (v.)/old/machine/computer Model: We have replaced the old machine with a computer. a. shopkeeper/say/replace (v.)/radio set/ we /not satisfy b. George/replace (v.) Edward/captain/team c. we/find/replace (n.)/Sue/she/away/holiday Key: a. The shopkeeper said he would replace the radio set if we were not satisfied. b. George has replaced Edward as captain of the team. c. We must find a replacement for Sue while she is away on holiday.
Exercise VII 1-Exercise-VII Unit 1 Essentials of Business 4. Prompt: where/necessary/they/extend/time limit (n.)/ repayment Model: Where necessary they can extend the time limit for the repayment. a. climbers reach/limit (n.)/endurance b. parents/ask/kids/keep/spend/limit (n.) c. government/plan/limit (v.) land /development / preserve / environment Key: a. The climbers had reached the limit of their endurance. b. The parents asked their kids to keep spending within limits. c. The government plans to limit land development in order to preserve the environment.