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Long-term Liabilities. Bonds. Written promise to pay a specific sum of money on a speciific future date Purchaser is bondholder Receives Bond certificate. Classification of Bonds. Registered - issued in name of holder Secured - assets pledged as security

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## Long-term Liabilities

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**Bonds**• Written promise to pay a specific sum of money on a speciific future date • Purchaser is bondholder • Receives Bond certificate**Classification of Bonds**• Registered - issued in name of holder • Secured - assets pledged as security • Debenture (unsecured) - based on general credit • Serial - mature in installments • Callable - corporation has option of retiring**Bondholders are creditors**Bonds a liability Interest is fixed charge Interest is expense Interest tax deductible No voting Stockholders are owners Stock is equity Dividends not fixed charges Dividends not expense Dividends not tax deductible Voting Bonds Compared to Stock**Financial Leverage**• Borrowed money invested within business to earn a higher rate than borrowing cost • When positive financial leverage occurs, use of bonds will produce higher EPS than financing same investment with stock • Use of bonds will also produce higher amount available for reinvestment**Bond Terms**• Face value • The principal of the bond payable at maturity • Stated interest rate • The rate multiplied by face value to get periodic cash interest payment • Term • Time to maturity**Why Bonds Sell at Discount or Premium**• When market interest rate on comparable grade bonds is higher or lower than the stated rate,**Why Bonds Sell at Discount or Premium**• When market interest rate on comparable grade bonds is higher or lower than the stated rate, investors will adjust the purchase price of the bond so that they earn the desired market interest rate**Why Bonds Sell at Discount or Premium**• Why Bonds Sell at Discount or PremiumWhen market interest rate on comparable grade bonds is higher or lower than the stated rate, investors will adjust the purchase price of the bond so that they earn the desired market interest rate • Issuing price determines effective or yield rate**Why Bonds Sell at Discount or Premium**• If the market rate is higher than stated rate, investors will offer less than face value • Difference between price paid and face value is discount • Effective interest rate is higher than stated interest rate**Why Bonds Sell at Discount or Premium**• If market rate is lower than stated rate, investors will offer more than face value • Difference between price paid and face value is premium • Effective interest rate is lower than stated interest rate**Sales Price of Bond**• Bond promises two future cash flows • Periodic interest payments • Principal at maturity • Price of bond today is the sum of the present value of these two future cash flows discounted at the interest rate the investor desires to earn (market rate)**Calculation of Bond Price**• Assume $100,000, 10%, 10 year bond, interest payable semiannually on 6/30 and 12/31, market interest rate 12% • Since the market interest rate (12%) is higher than the stated interest rate (10%), the bond should sell at a discount**Calculation of Bond Price**• PV of face amount (i=6%,n=20) • $100,000 x 0.312 = $31,200 • PV of interest payments • $5,000 x 11.470 = $57,350 • Price of bond = $88,550**Issuance of Bonds**• Increase Cash for the proceeds of issuance • Increase Bonds Payable for face value • Increase Premium or Discount for the difference**Amortization of Premium or Discount**• The premium or discount is an adjustment to the interest • To record the proper interest expense, we must amortize the premium or discount • Two methods • Straight-line - constant amortization • Effective interest - constant effective rate**Recording Interest Straight-Line**• Decrease Cash for • Face amount x Stated rate X Time • Decrease Premium or Discount for • Premium or Discount / Time to maturity • Increase Interest Expense for • Sum of cash and amortization**Recording Interest Effective Interest Method**• Decrease Cash for • Face amount x Stated Rate x Time • Increase Interest Expense for • Carrying value x Effective Interest Rate x Time • Decrease Premium or Discount for • The difference between cash and interest expense**Discount Amortization Example**• $10,000, 10%, 2 year bond • Interest payable semiannually • Market interest rate 11% • Issue price $9,822.50**Discount Amortization Straight-Line**Pd Cash Exp Amort CV 0 9,822.50 1 500.00 544.38 44.38 9,866.88 2 500.00 544.38 44.38 9,911.26 3 500.00 544.38 44.38 9,955.64 4 500.00 544.38 44.36 10,000.00**Proof of Interest**Future cash payments Face $10,000.00 Interest 2,000.00 Total $12,000.00 Cash received 9,822.50 Total interest $2,177.50 Semiannual interest $2,177.50 / 4 = $544.38**Discount Amortization Effective Interest**Pd Cash Exp Amort CV 0 9,822.50 1 500.00 540.24 40.24 9,862.74 2 500.00 542.45 42.45 9,905.19 3 500.00 544.79 44.79 9,949.98 4 500.00 547.25 47.25 *9,997.23 *rounding error**Premium Amortization Example**• $10,000, 10%, 2 year bond • Interest payable semiannually • Market interest rate 9% • Issue price $10,184.00**Premium Amortization Straight-Line**Pd Cash Exp Amort CV 0 10,184.00 1 500.00 454.00 46.00 10,138.00 2 500.00 454.00 46.00 10,092.00 3 500.00 454.00 46.00 10,046.00 4 500.00 454.00 46.00 10,000.00**Proof of Interest**Future cash payments Face $10,000.00 Interest 2,000.00 Total $12,000.00 Cash received 10,184.00 Total interest $1,816.00 Semiannual interest $1,816.00 / 4 = $454.00**Premium Amortization Effective Interest**Pd Cash Exp Amort CV 0 10,184.00 1 500.00 458.28 41.72 10,142.28 2 500.00 456.40 43.60 10,098.68 3 500.00 454.44 45.56 10,053.12 4 500.00 452.39 47.61 *10,005.51 *rounding error**Issuance Between Interest Dates**• Interest since last interest payment date accrues to date of issuance at the stated rate • Proceeds of issuance include • Market price of bond • Accrued interest • Accrued interest increases Interest Payable**Issuance Between Interest Dates**• Next interest payment is for full 6 months and pays off Interest Payabe • Resulting interest expense is only for period since issuance**Mortgage Notes Payable**• Long-term note with assignment of an interest in property • Mortgage paid in equal periodic installments • Each payment includes • Interest at specified rate on unpaid principal • Reduction of principal for difference between payment and interest**Analyzing Information**• Is the level of total debt manageable? • Does it seem likely interest and principal payments can be met? • Times Interest Earned ratio • Debit ratio • If firm needs additional financing, would you recommend lending or investing in it?

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