AKS 47:World War II 1939-1945 Chapter 32 – Pages 925-951
The Road to War Early Fascist Aggression
Aggressors Invade NationsSept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria • Why? • Manchuria rich in coal & iron– valuable to Japan • new markets for Japanese goods • Space for a growing population
Early Challenges to World PeaceSept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria; Withdraws from League of Nations • World Reaction?: • W. nations did not want to get involved b/c they had their own problems to deal with • Result: • Continue aggression
Aggressors Invade NationsSept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria • Result? • League of Nations protested – did nothingelse • Japan ignored protests • Pulled out of League in 1933
Aggressors Invade NationsOct. 1935: Italy attacks Ethiopia • Why? • Avenge Ethiopian victory from 1890s • Mussolini dreamed of Italian Empirein Africa
Early Challenges to World PeaceOct. 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia • World Reaction?: • League of Nations ordered sanctions against Italy • Refused to sell them weapons, continued to sell them oil • Refused to get involved for fear of another conflict • Result: • Italy defeated Ethiopia • Emperor of Ethiopia pleaded w/ League of Nations for help – they did nothingin hopes of keeping the peace in Europe • After pleading with the League for help, the leader of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie, made a prophetic statement: “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow.”
Aggressors Invade NationsOct. 1935: Italy attacks Ethiopia • Result? • Italy won easily
Early Challenges to World Peace • July 1936: • Spanish Civil War Begins • March 1936: • German troops occupy Rhineland
Democracies Failed to Act • France and Britain are dealing with local problems and want to avoid war. • US takes an isolationist stance and feels they should avoid involvement in other nation’s affairs. • 1935 Congress passes the first of three Neutrality Acts • Acts state that the US banned loans and the sale of arms to nations at war and • Warned Americans not to sail on ships of countries at war.
Aggressors Invade NationsMarch 1936: Germany occupies Rhineland • Hitler Violates Treaty of Versailles by… • Rebuilding Germany’s army • Invaded Rhineland
Aggressors Invade NationsMarch 1936: Germany occupies Rhineland • Result? • British & French appeasement (giving in to keep peace) • Marked turning point in march toward war b/c: • Strengthened Hitler’s power & prestige • Balance of power shifted in Germany’s favor • Weak response by Britain & France encouraged Hitler to speed up expansion
Aggressors Invade NationsMarch 1936: Germany occupies Rhineland • Alliance Formed • Hitler forms Axis Powers with Mussolini and Japan
Early Challenges to World Peace • Oct. 1936 • Hitler & Mussolini sign Rome-Berlin Axis • July 1937: • Japan invades China
Aggressors Invade NationsJuly 1937: Japan invades China • Rape of Nanjing: • Japanese army killed 200,000-300,000 Chinese civilians in about 2 months • Committed rape, arson, looting, & executed prisoners of war & civilians
Aggressors Invade NationsSept. 1938: Munich Conference is Held • Why was it held? • Hitler demanded Czechoslovakia give up part of its land to Germany (Sudetenland) • Czechoslovakia refused – Conference held to solve problem
Aggressors Invade NationsSept. 1938: Munich Conference is Held • Was it successful? • No – Germany allowed to take Sudetenland, but promised to respect new Czech. Borders • A few months later, he took entire country
Aggressors Invade NationsApril 1939: Franco becomes Spanish dictator • Civil War: • Broke out in 1936 • Army led by Franco – revolted against gov’t run by liberals & socialists • Hitler, Mussolini, Soviet Union sent aid (army backed by Spanish fascists) • Guernica :Training ground for Hitler’s troops • Gov’t resistance collapsed
Aggressors Invade NationsAug. 1939: Germany & USSR sign non-aggression pact • Why did enemies sign a pact? • Germany: • Did not want USSR getting in the way in Poland • Soviet Union: • Wanted to avoid war with Germany & upset about how they were treated by other Allies at the end of World War I
Early Challenges to World Peace Aug. 1939:Hitler & Stalin sign Nazi-Soviet Pact • Advantages for Hitler: • Removal of threat of attack from the east • Division of Poland • Advantages for Stalin: • Division of Poland • Takeover of Finland & Baltic countries • Safety from German attack
Early Challenges to World PeaceSept. 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland • Hitler’s Strategy: • Blitzkrieg – “lightning war” • Use fast-moving mechanized weapons • Planes, Tanks, Artillery, Infantry – all at ONCE!!! • Poland fell in ONE month!
Early Challenges to World PeaceSept. 3, 1939: Britain & France Declare War on Germany in response to the German Invasion of Poland. WORLD WAR II OFFICIALLY BEGINS!!!
The European CampaignApril 1940: Hitler invades Denmark & Norway; Heads for France • Hitler’s Plan: • Pave a way to France & distract Allies by invading Holland, Belgium, & Luxembourg, then send massive force through the Ardennes Forest
Warm UP: Road to War • Name 3 Axis Powers during WWII. Name each country’s leader. • Name 4 Allied Powers during WWII. Name each country’s leader. • Why did most European nations practice appeasement? • What was Hitler awarded at the Munich Conference? • Name 3 acts of aggression in the years prior to WWII. • Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland were all annexed before WWII by which country? • What was the temporary alliance between Hitler and Stalin for Polish lands called? • Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany? • Who was a member of the Axis powers but then switched sides and joined the Allied forces? • What was Hitler’s new military strategy of having a lightning war called?
World War II: The European Campaign Major Battles in Europe and North Africa
The European CampaignJune 1940: France Surrenders • What Happened at Dunkirk?: • Britain rescued Allied soldiers stranded at Dunkirk & ferried them to safety across the English Channel
The European CampaignJuly 1940: Battle of Britain • What Happened?: • German Luftwaffe (Air Force) bombed British cities for 3 months • Goal: Hitler wanted to destroy British morale before invading • Outcome: • RAF fighters & British resistance forced Germany to call off the attack – Hitler could be stopped!
The European Campaign • Sept. 1940 • Italy moves to seize Egypt & Suez Canal • Feb. 1941 • Hitler sends Gen. Rommel to help Italian troops seize Egypt & Suez Canal
The European CampaignJune 1941: Hitler Invades Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa) • Why?: • Hitler wanted the territory (Lebensraum or living space) • Felt his army was capable of fighting a war on two fronts (Eastern Front in USSR & and Western in France)
Dec. 11 1941 • Hitler declares war on the United States
The European CampaignJuly 1942: Battle of El Alamein • What Happened?: • Pushed for by Churchill • Gen. Montgomery vs. Gen. Rommel • Forced Rommel and his forces to retreat westward from Egypt • Operation Torch: Gen. Eisenhower arrived with American troops in N. Africa
The European CampaignJuly-Nov. 1942: Battle of El Alamein • Result: • Trapped Rommel’s forces b/w American & British & finally defeated Rommel’s Afrika Korps in Egypt.
The European CampaignJuly 1942-Feb.1943: Battle of Stalingrad • Outcome: • Hitler attacked, Soviets eventually put German forces on defensive with Soviets pushing them westward
The European CampaignJuly 1942-Feb.1943: Battle of Stalingrad • Comparison to Napoleon: • In both invasions, Russia’s terrible winter & its strategy of destroying everything in the enemy’s path created severe hardships for the invaders • Hitler’s troops expected a quick victory and did not even bring winter equipment • US and Russian factories adequately supplied the Russians
The European CampaignSept. 1943: Invasion of Italy • Outcome: • Resulted in Allied conquest of Sicily & forced eventual surrender of Italy
The European Campaign • Nov.-Dec. 1943 • Tehran Conference
Tehran ConferenceWhen? • November 28-December 1, 1943
Tehran ConferenceMembers Present? • Franklin Roosevelt (USA) • Winston Churchill (Britain) • Joseph Stalin (USSR)
Tehran ConferencePurpose of Meeting? • Coordinate military strategy against Germany & Japan • Decide on important issues of post-WWII era
Tehran ConferenceWhat was decided? • Coordination of D-Day invasion • Poland’s post-war borders • First discussions about splitting up Germany into zones of occupation • First discussions of the future United Nations between Stalin & FDR • *Many issues left for final decisions at later conferences
Battle of the Bulge Youtube Clip • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8a8fqGpHgsk