The Consolidation- of Latin America 1830-1920 Chapter 25 Notes Ms. Chattin
Introduction • Execution of Maximilian Habsburg in Mexico in 1867 by Benito Juarez • Liberals in Mexico and the president of Mexico didn’t want intervention of Europe and Maximilian (who now claimed to the emperor of Mexico) • Mexico went through a period of civil wars in this in order to get Maximilian to the throne as well as topple him • Many Latin Americans were inspired by the American Revolution, the French Revolution, ideas of the Enlightenment, and Haiti. • Wanted progress, reforms, representational government, and property rights but faced problems of colonial heritage, dependence on Europe, class and regional difference, unequal distribution of wealth, and the rise of European industrialization creating weak dependent economic states
Causes of Political Change • Many Latin American colonies became independent states as a result of Napoleon and the struggles to remove him from power. Napoleon had involved himself in a series of wars to virtually overtake all of Europe (Peninsular Wars). After France’s lost to Russia many European nations formed an alliance against France and attacked (Battle of Nations, Waterloo) and the boundaries and leadership of France was decided in the Peace of Paris 1 and 2 (Louis XVIII) • As Napoleon took over and pressured the Iberian peninsula Latin America looked to free itself! • Haiti which pulled away from French rule became independent in 1804 under Toussaint L’Overture (led movement to end slavery 1791)! • While Cuba and Puerto Rico didn’t become independent for a very long time out of fears of slave rebellions • When France invaded Portugal and Spain in 1808 much guerrilla warfare followed and the junta central (committee to rule in king’s name against Napoleon) • As a result of the crisis on the Iberian peninsula local elites pretending to be loyal to the deposed king set up juntas of the own and began ruling in their own right! The movement for autonomy had started!
Spanish-American Independence • Mexico: Father Miguel de Hidalgo- Indians and mestizo to fight in 1810. Lost support of Creoles who feared that the rebellion for independence would inspire social rebellions. Hidalgo was executed! • 1820 conservative Creoles willing to move towards independence and unite old insurgent forces. Augustin de Iturbide (Creole officer) sent to eliminate insurgents but rather drew up an agreement combining their forces in 1821. Iturbide was soon proclaimed emperor of Mexico. Mexico was a monarchy (conservative solution to independence issue). The Mexican monarchy collapsed by 1824 and was replaced with a republic. • Argentina and Venezuela soon independent too while Peru lost to break with Spain • Caracas-Simon Bolivar (Creole officer) emerged as leader of the revolt against Spain. Between 1817-1822 won independence for Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. In 1830 they were united into the Gran Colombia. • Jose de San Martin- Rio de la Plata. Buenos Aires booming center (porteno –its residents) resented Spain and wanted freedom of trade. By 1816 the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata claimed independence. • 1813 Paraguay independent of Spain • San Martin helped Chile and Peru become free too • By 1825 all of Spanish South America was independent
Agustín de Iturbide, emperador de México. Jose de San Martin Simon Bolivar
Brazilian Independence • Different process towards independence because the Napoleonic wars and the invasion of Portugal! • In 1807 French troops invaded Portugal and the entire royal family an court fled the country to Brazil. Rio de Janeiro became the capital of the Portuguese empire and had equal status then to Portugal with the ports of Brazil now open to world commerce. • King Dom Joao VI lived in Brazil and ruled from there! Transformed Brazil-beautiful parks, library, gardens, printing press, universities-became an imperial city! • By 1820 Napoleon removed from power and a liberal revolution occurred in Portugal recalling the king to Portugal. • King Dom Joao VI left his son, Pedro, as regent (or ruler in his place). He warned Pedro that if a revolution for independence was to happen that he should led the movement. • 1822 Brazil declared independence under Pedro who then became Dom Pedro I the constitutional emperor of Brazil
Political Fragmentation • New Latin American nations were grouped into regional blocks, but there were many regional rivalries, economic competition, and political divisions making these large states impossible! • Mexico: Monarchy to a republic (1824) and Mexico created the United Provinces of Central America- by 1838 started falling apart when Guatemala broke from the union. • 1844 Dominican Republic independent • Gran Colombia (S.A.)-Bolivar created the union between the various areas (Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela) largely due to his personality so when he died the union ended • Rio de la Plata (S.A.)-Argentina hoped to led large state, but Paraguay remained independent and Uruguay revolted and became independent buffer between Argentina and Brazil in 1828 • Regional rivalries kept Peru and Bolivia from forming a union! • Much consolidation efforts failed due to geographic barriers, great distances, poor roads, poor transportation, regional differences, and political differences. Its pretty amazing that Spanish American only separated into 18 different nations!
Caudillos, Politics, Church • Problems of new nations: caudillos-regional commanders of armies loyal to them and not the state and powerful army became the preoccupation of governments-too much spending and too big! • Caudillos interested in their own interests and not the peoples! Defending local elites who claimed to have the interests of all at heart (yeah right!) (Rafael Carrera of Guatemala a good example of a good populists) • Disagreement on the kind of republic of early states: centralists vs. federalists • Centralists- wanted to create strong, centralized national governments with broad powers (big government) • Federalists- wanted tax and commercial policies to be set by regional governments ( decentralized-small government). Typically associated with liberal reforms. • Liberals-stressed the right of the individual and attacked the structure of colonial society-wanted a secular society and often wanted a federalist form of government. • Conservatives-believed in a strong centralized state and often wanted to maintain certain aspects of colonial society. They believed the structure of colonial society was the most equitable (each group was linked to others a parts of a body-all dependent upon each other) • church questions-secular liberals (federalists) from conservatives (centralists) • Political parties called themselves liberal or conservative made up of same socio-economic group (elite or bourgeoisie) • First 50 years of independence in many Latin American nations thus resulted in turmoil with presidents quickly coming and going! Constitutions were short-lived and overturned. • Exceptions: Chile and Brazil
Mid-Century Stagnation • Diplomatic recognition and security of Latin American nations- US: Monroe Doctrine of 1823-attempt of European powers to colonize in the Americas would be seen as an unfriendly act. Great Britain also recognized Latin American independence (most important) • 1820-1850 stagnant economy-wars, poor roads, $ tied up in land (Cuba exception). Turned to foreign markets for loans and opened up ports-couldn’t compete (economies not totally controlled by them) • Industrialization-demands for Latin American products-coffee (Brazil), hides and beef (Argentina), minerals and grains (Chile), guana (Peru) • Cities grew-better internal markets-steamships,RR –better transportation. Liberal reformers passed policies to break with past colonial heritage (1820-1830s) and follow social and economic trends in Europe. However, the societies were often unprepared for these changes! • By 1840s conservatives return to power-slow reforms
Economic Resurgence-after 1850 • Positivism-observation and scientific approach to solve problems of society • Rapid expansion of the economy-Latin American exports sought by industrial nations (Europe and US) –cooper, rubber, wheat, sugar, and coffee. Export economy! • Population of Latin American doubled • Liberal programs = economic success • Post 1860 gov. believed in progress, ed, free competition but didn’t trust the masses! Applied ideas out of place-foreign concepts and overall displaced the poor and often small farmers!
Mexico • 1824 Mexico became a republic and the fight started between conservatives and liberals (Santa Anna) over the direction of the new government. • Mexico-American War –Mexico at a weak point and the US moves in for land! (TX and Cali) ended in the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in which the US got ½ of Mexican lands with only 5% of its peeps • Bentio Juarez-local governor that became the president of Mexico (liberal) started La Reforma in 1854 which were a series of liberal policies • 1857 new Mexican liberal constitution • New farm policies-ended in small farms being bought by larger estates-by 1910 50% of rural farmers landless • Resulted in Civil War –conservatives asked for French intervention (Catholic state) and in 1862 Maximilian Habsburg sent from Austria to become the emperor of Mexico. Juarez as you can imagine wasn’t a fan in spite of the fact that he kept La Reforma going! In 1867 France pulled troops from Mexico and Juarez retook power and executed him by firing squad! Juarez became increasingly autocratic • In 1872 Juarez died. A commander of his, Porfirio Diaz became president who was basically a dictator!
Argentina • Rio de la Plata-increased trade helped to wake up the economy-pampas –herding • Rio de la Plata declared independence in 1816, but soon local caudillos and gauchos (cowboys) took over regions • Centralists (big government-traditional) vs. federalists (freedom of religion, but wanted in Argentina also wanted a strong central government) –liberal federalists under Juan Manuel de Rosas –weak central gov. and local autonomy instituted. Only problem was that Rosas favored the ranchers of Buenos Aires and was despotic. He also exiled in opponents. • Exiles, caudillos, and liberals joined to overthrow Rosas in 1852. Debate over constitution followed-In 1862 a compromise was worked out and the new unified nation called Argentine Republic was created. • Domingo Sarmiento –political and economic reforms bringing progress and $ -beef, hides, and wool! Increased foreign investment • Population triples due to agricultural expansion, higher wages, and more opportunities (Many Europeans attracted to Buenos Aires). Increased revenues afforded the government programs like education and transportation. Unity also created through warfare of the Triple Alliance against Uruguay.
Brazilian Empire • 1822 Brazil became independent under Dom Pedro I (constitutional emperor). However the people really wanted a republic which led to revolts. Dom Pedro I abdicated the throne to his son, Dom Pedro II (regents ruled until older) • Conflict between liberals and conservatives • Going through economic transformation-coffee (Fazendas or coffee estates). By 1880 –60% of its export! Better economy! Need slaves! Not abolished until 1888 • 1850 political stability under Dom Pedro II (better roads, more foreign investment, more European immigrants • 1870 abolitionist movement • Support for monarchy lost, unpopular war (War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay 1865-1870). Republican Party formed in 1871 and in 1889 a bloodless military coup deposed the emperor and established a republic! • Canudos-insurgent group –stopped by gov.
Cultural Expressions • European influences became important-scientific and art • Latin American elites adopted tastes of European-dress, painting, hymns • Neoclassical:Greece and Rome to -1830s Romanticism:Dias, Hernandez to -1870s Realism: Gana and Assis
Old Patterns • Many things changed, but much remained the same socially • Women, Indigenous peoples, skin color, and slavery kept some people in old power struggle • Women-participated in independence movements, but gained no real right • 1842: 7-15 school (Mexico) for girls and boys • Public schools-more opportunities for women and led to advocating women’s rights • Racism-kept some people down • Most states legally ended the castes (color and ethnicity) but still a barrier for most • Indian became an insult!
The Great Boom 1880-1920 • Economic growth spurt due to industrialization • Raw materials, foodstuffs, tropical crops • Intervention of US in Latin America • Export ld economy-individual freedoms, open market, limited gov. intervention led to economic success. Alliance between middle class merchants and large landowners, miners! • Export led economy: • Bananas and coffee: Central America • Tobacco and sugar: Cuba • Rubber and coffee: Brazil • Copper and silver: Mexico Risky: world market princes of Latin American commodities ultimately were determined by conditions outside the region Led to rivalry, hostility, and war! Nitrates-Chili, Peru, and Bolivia led to the War of the Pacific “fertilizer war” Latin American trade increased by 50% in this time period Argentina became very wealthy from wool, beef, and grains! “As wealthy as an Argentine” Mexican exports doubled under Diaz Rapidly expanding markets attracted investors (British 1st and later US)
Mexico and Argentina-Economic Transformation • Mexico-Juarez to Diaz (president for 35 years). Diaz suppressed regional rebellions and imposed strong centralized government. • Financed by foreign capital: RR (exporting goods and soldiers), industrialization-mining, transportation. • Diaz kept liberal democracy down! Wanted to imposed positivist ideas on economy (cientificos). Only rich benefited expense of large rural peasantry, working class, and Indians. Diaz opponents driven into exile! • Strikes suppressed by national police force (Rurales) • 1910 Mexican Revolution =10 year civil war • Argentina-1880s conquered Indians, Buenos Aires federal district (Paris of SA)-many immigrants due to opportunities. • Liberal programs and technological changes (refrigerated ships-beef shipped!) created even more economic opportunities. (golondrinas-Italians one harvest at home the other in Argentina! 1/3 population foreign born-much influence (Europeanize Argentina-”hacer America”) • 1890s Socialist Party formed (workers trying to seek representation), 1918 strikes, 1912 electoral law, 1916 –Radical party. Going through many of the social changes in Europe. Labor unrest unresolved!
Uncle Sam Goes South • US became interested in politics of Latin America following the US Civil War-specifically to Mexico and Central America • 1898 Spanish-American war: centered on Cuba and Puerto Rico (Spain’s last American colonies). The Cuban economy had boomed from sugar and tobacco. Their 10 year war for independence had failed (started in 1868). Fighting started again in 1895 and the US joined by 1898 declaring war on Spain and occupied Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. • US had lots of capital and interest in Cuba! US market for their sugar! In 1902 Cuba became “independent” but was really dependent on US and Puerto Rico was legally taken by US • Panama Canal: short cut from Atlantic to Pacific-much needed for trade. Colombia reluctant the US backed Panamanian movement for independence if they allow the US to build the canal. (President Theodore Roosevelt) Canal opened in 1914. • Latin America became wary of US and their cultural superiority especially the materialism of US culture.
Global Connections • Latin America moved from colonies to independent nations-hard process (social and economic problems). These countries changed much like Europe due to Enlightenment values. • Need to revive economies and become independent-proved difficult (industrialization) while holding off colonial incursions. • Heavy burden of past and many groups called for reforms. It did remain the same in some aspects-casta system. Elite controlled much! • Many revolts, but revolutions dying off • Similar to western states politically and culturally yet similar to Asia and Africa economically!