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CARBS & LIPIDS PowerPoint Presentation
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CARBS & LIPIDS

CARBS & LIPIDS

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CARBS & LIPIDS

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  1. CARBS & LIPIDS Cellular Fuels

  2. CARBS - Monosaccharides • Simple sugars • Monomer used produce all other forms • Source of instant energy • Examples: • Glucose • Fructose • Galactose

  3. CARBS - Disaccharides • Double Sugars • Examples: • Maltose: glu + glu • Lactose: glu + gal • Sucrose: glu + fru + =

  4. CARBS - Polysaccharides • Complex Carbs • Dehydration Synthesis • Bond monomers together by removing water

  5. CARBS - Polysaccharides • Energy storage: • Starch (alpha glucose) • Long chains • Plastids of plants • Glycogen (alpha glucose) • Branched molecule • Liver & muscles of animals

  6. CARBS - Polysaccharides • Building materials • Cellulose (beta glu) • Cell walls of plants • Humans unable to digest • Chitin (beta glu + N2) • Mushrooms cell walls • Arthropod exoskeletons (add CaCO3)

  7. CARBS – Harvesting the Energy Hydrolysis – chem. rxn used to break bonds btw monomers & release energy.

  8. CARBS – Storing the energy Dehydration synthesis: removing –OH from 1 monomer & a H from another in order to bond them together

  9. LIPIDS – Building Blocks • Glycerol • Fatty Acids

  10. LIPIDS: Triglycerides • Saturated Fats • All single C-C bonds (full of Hydrogen) • Solid @ rm temp • Animals fats

  11. LIPIDS - Triglycerides • Unsaturated Fats • Un – 1 double C=C bond; polyun - >1 C=C bond • Liquid @ rm temp • Plant & fish fats

  12. LIPIDS – Hydrogenated (Trans)Fats • Synthetically add H’s to an unsat fat to convert it into a saturated fat • Why??? • Increased shelf-life & flavor, spreadable

  13. LIPIDS - Phospholipids Make up cell membranes (bilipid layer) 2 fatty acid chains & a phosphate group

  14. LIPIDS - Steriods Composed of ~20 Carbons twisted into 4 rings

  15. LIPID Functions: • Long term energy storage • Insulation • Cold (layer under skin) • Nerve endings (myelin sheath) • Hibernation • Regulate diffusion thru c. mem • Protection • Communication btw cells (hormones) • Metabolism (fat soluble vitamins –A,D,E,K)