Common Openings • To what extent • How much, to what degree, what quantity • Assess • Determine degree of accuracy of a given statement • Analyze • Separate, breakdown into parts, show relationships • Evaluate • Judge, value, rate, rank, show relationships • Describe/Discuss/Explain • Give detail, picture, relationships to other things
To What Extent Questions • “To what extent" requires an answer on a continuum somewhere between "not at all" and "completely or totally." • Avoid the absolutes since the phrase indicates that the answer is somewhere in the middle.
To What Extent Questions • "...much more important than..." or "...somewhat true that..." or "...slightly greater factor than..." • "Although US relations with the Soviet Union were a factor in the decision to drop the atomic bomb, the main reason...." • Use wording that indicates comparison
To What Extent Questions • Take a strong position and then leave room for exceptions to your strong position. • This helps you create an excellent complex thesis.
To What Extent Questions • “to what extent” requires both a yes and a no response. • Make it very clear whether your essay is going to argue MORE STRONGLY for the yes or the no view of the issue. • Something happened to some (how much) extent, but didn't happen completely or totally because...
Thesis Statement • Without using the word “I” clearly express the historical analysis that you intend to argue. • Capture the attention of the reader and do not simply restate or reword the question.
Thesis Statement • Write a COMPLEX THESISSTATEMENT that will answer the entire question. • The thesis should demonstrate that there was a change over time and, if possible, show there is more than one side to the question.
Thesis Statement • Some historians say that the U.S. dropped the atomic bomb to scare Russia, but there is even less evidence to show that the U.S. was punishing Japan.
Thesis Statement • The decision to pursue the atomic bomb was primarily for the purpose of making Japan surrender, while intimidating the Soviets was merely a positive side effect.
Thesis Statement • The 1950’s were more different from the 1920’s Red Scare than it was similar.
Thesis Statement • Although there were some similarities between the two Red Scares, the differences were greater.
Thesis Statement • While they had their differences, the two Red Scares were still overall more similar than different.
Thesis Statement • Although they still shared the same target, the two Red Scares were greatly different.
Thesis Statement • Although the fear resulting from the Red Scare in the 20’s was exaggerated, it prepared America for the fear it would experience by a real threat in the 50’s.
Thesis Statement • Even though both scares were provoked by obvious occurrences, the external forces driving the 50’s Red Scare were more understandable than the unfounded threats of the 20’s.
Topic Sentence-Mini Thesis Statement • A topic sentences written as a mini-thesis is less likely to lead to a paragraph that only has historical narration (SFI). • A topic sentence written as a mini-thesis is more likely to lead to a paragraph that includes both narration (SFI) and historical analysis.
Topic Sentence • In the case of the Rosenbergs, the main prosecution witness was David Greenglass.
Topic Sentence • Government officials were questioned about communism.
Topic Sentence • The 1920’s Red Scare developed in the United States after the Bolshevik Revolution.
Topic Sentence • Although events overseas sparked a fear of communism, this fear was superficial, because these events were not credible threats to the nation.
Topic Sentence • The Red Scare in the 1950s’, unlike that in the 1920’s actually posed a real threat to the United States.
Topic Sentence • In the case of the Rosenbergs, the main prosecution witness was David Greenglass, whose testimony was not only questionable, but proved to be unreliable because of his motives.
Topic Sentence • The strategies of the civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King Jr. were of nonviolence, while the Black Panthers called for more direct action.
Topic Sentence • The majority of civil rights movement was lead by leaders who supported nonviolence.
Topic Sentence • As the movement progressed into the later 1960s, violence began to inhibit the goals and strategies for integration and equality with whites.
Topic Sentence • Nonviolence in the African American civil rights movement of the early 1960s caused the greatest change in national legislation.
Topic Sentence • African American goals moved closer to reality as their actions and protests demanded the notice of others.
Topic Sentence • While Martin Luther King Jr. aroused support in favor of a nonviolent movement, other organizations and leaders presented alternatives that were incapable of accomplishing what he had with nonviolence.
Topic Sentence • The 1960’s was an ideal period for the civil rights movement, since the nation was already in the mood for change as a result of the protests over the Vietnam War.
Describing Versus Analyzing • Lower scores are given to essays that only describe or narrate what happened. • Higher scores are given to essays that also analyze.
Analysis Means • The ability to demonstrate the knowledge of WHY AND HOW rather than a mere knowledge of the historical facts.
Analysis Means • Going beyond just providing the reader with historical information by making relevant inferences, connections and associations.
Analysis Demonstrates • That a student has a more in depth understanding of the essay topic and a much higher level of thinking.
Distinguish Identify Differentiate Appraise Compare Contrast Justify Criticize Debate Question Relate Solve Examine Categorize Analyzing
Analysis • The nonviolent approach to combat racial injustice proved to be the most effective approach in helping blacks to gain the respect of legislators as well as bring new legislation.
Analysis • Therefore, it can be said that nonviolent demonstrations among African Americans brought the most change in national legislation.
Analysis • Therefore, the aggression and violence of the civil rights movement beginning in the late 1960s did not result in changes for the better, but actually created change for the worse.