Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing You will need to know all three in order to best organize your information and your research writing
What is the difference? • Quoting • Using the exact words of the author from the passage • Quotation marks are around the words you took from the passage • Citations are needed at the end of the quote • Paraphrasing • Restating the idea in your own words and sentence structure but keeping the meaning the same • It can be shorter or longer than the original. • Citations are needed at the end of the paraphrase • Summarizing • Restating only the main points of the passage in your own words • It is very brief compared to the original • Citations are needed at the end of the summary
Citations? • What do you mean by “citations are needed?” • In-Text Citations (also known as parenthetical citations) • You must give credit to the author for their original wording. • You must give credit to the author for their original ideas. • In other words, it is better to cite than to not.
In-Text Citations • Do not need to happen every sentence. • Do not wait until the end of the paragraph. • Look like… • “Here is a direct quotation” (Last). • “Here is a direct quotation” (“Article”). • Here is a paraphrase or a summary (“Article” 297). • Here is a paraphrase or a summary (Last 428).
Direct Quotations • This is copying the material exactly as it appears in the text. • You must put quotation marks around the copied writing. • You must use an in-text citation after the quotation • Example • “This sentence is taken directly from the book” (author’s last name ##). • “This sentence is taken directly from the website” (“Article Title”).
Direct Quotation Practice • Create a direct quotation using the following text. • In a recent survey of Garretson sophomores, 85% of students state that English is their favorite class. • SOURCE: Buchholz, Kelsey. “How to Make Your Class the Best”. Teaching Today. 15 Jan. 2015. Web. 21 Jan. 2015 • Does it look like this? • “In a recent survey of Garretson sophomores, 85% of students state that English is their favorite class” (Buchholz). • Now write a direct quotation using one of your sources.
Paraphrase • This is used to keep the same meaning but put the ideas into your own words and sentence structure. • This can be shorter or longer than the original. • Since this is not your original idea, you need to use an in-text citation. • Example • This has the main ideas of the selection but is put into my own words (author’s last name ##). • I changed the wording and the sentence structure but kept the meaning the same (“Article Title” ##).
Paraphrase • Paraphrase the following examples. • Use the following as your source for the information. • “Random Facts for Fun” Fun Practices for Students. 13 Aug. 2014. Web. 21 Jan. 2015 • The adolescent maneuvered the bi-wheeled vehicle undamaged. • In the metropolis the recreational area was dilapidated. • The educator removed the unruly student from the environment. • Now paraphrase some information from one of your sources. • Remember to cite.
Summarize • This is briefly stating the main ideas of the selection. • You will want to use this when applying information from longer texts such as paragraphs, pages, or even chapters. • Since this is not your original idea, it still needs to have an in-text citation. • Example • This is a summary of what this section was about (author’s last name ##). • Your summaries should be short and to the point, using a few sentences at most (“Article Title” ##).