We Eat a Lot of Sugar • Unbelievable as it seems, according to the USDA, the average American consumes the following each year: • 134 pounds of refined sugar excluding honey • 365 servings of soda pop (638 cans per year for people aged 12-29) • 200 sticks of gum • 22 pounds of candy • 63 dozen doughnuts • 60 pounds of cakes and cookies • 23 gallons of ice cream
Blood Pressure • Blood pressure is divided into systolic and diastolic • 120/70 mmhg • Systolic should be under 120 mmhg • Diastolic blood pressure should be 80 mmhg or less
Too Much Sugar • Sugar is the problem • People eat too many ‘calories’ each day • Watch the glycemic index • Concentrate on foods with a GI of less than 50 • Watch you caloric intake • Limit calories to your active metabolic rate = 2200 kcals/day • Any weight loss is good –a few pounds is great • Many people are discouraged by wanting to lose “too” much • Ideal weight for a 6 foot man is 175 pounds • Ideal weight for a 5’6” woman is 130 pounds
Diabetes • All cells in the body need a continuous supply of energy to carry out normal body functions. • Glucose, a simple sugar derived from the foods we eat, is the primary source of cellular energy. • Glucose is transported throughout the body by the bloodstream.
Diabetes • Diabetes is a serious medical condition characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood. • Glucose is a simple sugar that comes from the food you eat. • When your stomach digests food, glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream. • The glucose circulates in your blood and serves as the main source of fuel for all the cells in your body.
However, glucose cannot get inside cells by itself. • Glucose needs insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, to transport it from blood into cells. • Diabetes occurs when the pancreas either can't produce any insulin at all, can't produce enough insulin, or the body can't use the insulin it makes. • When any of these happens, glucose builds up in the blood. • This is a condition known as hyperglycemia. The result is that the body lacks the fuel it needs.
Diabetes occurs when the pancreas either can't produce any insulin at all, can't produce enough insulin, or the body can't use the insulin it makes. • When any of these happens, glucose builds up in the blood. • This is a condition known as hyperglycemia. The result is that the body lacks the fuel it needs.
3 Kinds of Diabetes • Type 1 diabetes -- Usually starts in childhood and accounts for 5 to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. • Diabetics produce little or no insulin and therefore must use insulin daily to control their condition. • Also they can develop an “acid” condition called diabetic ketoacidosis of DKA which can be life threatening
Type I Diabetes • Type 1 diabetes most often starts in childhood, before the age of 20. People with Type 1 diabetes usually have a number of the following symptoms: • Frequent urination • Excessive thirst • Unexplained weight loss • Extreme hunger • Sudden vision changes • Tingling or numbness in hands or feet • Feeling very tired much of the time • Very dry skin • Sores that are slow to heal • More infections than usual • Nausea, vomiting, and stomach pains
Type I Diabetes • Therefore, people with Type 1 diabetes must use insulin daily. • If they miss their injections or take too much, the levels of glucose in the blood can fluctuate out of control, getting very high or very low. . . and leading to emergency medical situations.
3 Kinds of Diabetes • Type 2 diabetes -- Usually starts in adulthood, and many of these people don't even know they have diabetes. It is much more common than Type 1, accounting for 90 to 95% of cases. • Often controlled with diet and exercise, and sometimes oral drugs or insulin. • These people are often very obese. • They tend not to have the acid condition called DKA
3 Kinds of Diabetes • Gestational diabetes -- Some women develop this form of diabetes when they are pregnant. • Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born, but the woman is then at higher risk for developing Type 2 diabetes later in her life.
Long Term Complications • Serious health conditions, including heart disease, stroke, blindness, amputations, kidney disease, and nerve damage.
Heart Disease and Stroke • Over a period of years, diabetes can have a big impact on the heart and blood vessels. • The problem needs to be taken seriously -- people with diabetes are at high risk of having a heart attack, stroke, or heart failure • Heart disease and related complications are the leading cause of death in people with diabetes.
Kidney Disease • The kidneys filter and clean blood. • Not surprisingly, having too much glucose in the blood puts a strain on them. • Over time, this can actually lead to kidney failure. • When this happens, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be needed.
Blindness • Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness in adults. • The most common eye disorder in diabetes is retinopathy • A weakened blood vessel may bulge out. • The blood vessel may rupture • Either of these can cause vision problems.
Nerve Damage - Neuropathy • Diabetes can damage the nerves and cause a complication called neuropathy. • Tingling and a burning sensations • Loss of sensitivity to warmth or cold • Numbness -- if the nerves are damaged enough, you may be unaware that a blister or minor wound has become infected. • Problems with bowel and bladder control • Impotence in men • Diabetics may even have a heart attack and not be able to feel any chest pain.
Poor Circulation • People with diabetes are at risk for blood vessel injury, which may be severe enough to cause tissue damage in the legs and feet. • At that point, minor infections sometimes develop into deep tissue injuries that may even require surgery. • In extreme cases, amputation of the foot or limb may be necessary.
Metabolic Syndrome • The metabolic syndrome is characterized by a group of metabolic risk factors in one person. They include: • Central obesity (excessive fat tissue in and around the abdomen) • Dyslipidemia - high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol — that foster plaque buildups in artery walls • Insulin resistance or glucose intolerance – high blood sugar • Raised blood pressure (130/80 mmHg or higher) • Inflammatory state - elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in the blood
Metabolic Syndrome • People with the metabolic syndrome die early deaths • Keep your weight normal • Exercise – this is the most important thing a human being can do for good health • Watch your sugar intake – eat nutritiously • Waist size should be 40 inches or less • Watch blood pressure – take medicine if needed • Cholesterol should be 180 or less • HDL Cholesterol should be 40 or higher • LDS Cholesterol should be 100 or less