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組織管理 (IV) PowerPoint Presentation
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組織管理 (IV)

組織管理 (IV)

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組織管理 (IV)

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  1. 組織管理(IV) 楊景傅 博士 (Albert J.F. Yang, Ph.D.) 國立高雄第一科技大學行銷與流通管理系 Tel:07-6011000, ext.4222 E-mail:jfyang@ccms.nkfust.edu.tw

  2. 組織與外在環境的關係 組織的子系統與外在環境

  3. 組織環境的基本概念 • 組織的外在環境要素 • 環境要素的內涵 • 一般環境 (general environment) • 特定環境 (specific environment) • 經營領域 (organizational domain)

  4. 組織的外在環境要素

  5. 環境要素的內涵

  6. 組織外在環境的特性分析 • 分析環境的構面 • 環境複雜性(environmental complexity) • 環境變動性 (environmental change) • 資源豐富性 (resource abundance) • 描述組織環境的特性 • 環境不確定性 • 環境不確定性 (environmental uncertainty) • 組織環境的不確定性

  7. 描述組織環境的特性

  8. 組織環境的不確定性

  9. 組織外在環境的特性分析 • 組織結構與不確定性 • 機械式結構與有機式結構 • 組織特性 • 結構特性與環境不確定性

  10. 機械式與有機式結構的組織特性

  11. 組織的環境適應與控制策略 • 適應策略(內部策略) • 控制策略(外部策略) • 管理者對組織環境的適應與控制

  12. 管理者對組織環境的適應與控制

  13. 組織的環境適應 環境偵測 預測與策略規劃 分化及整合 經營領域選擇 招募 建立緩衝機制 調節需求 配給 地理分散或移轉 組織的環境適應與控制策略

  14. 部門分化以負責特定的環境要素

  15. 組織的環境適應與控制策略 • 組織的環境控制 • 廣告 • 契約 • 收買與籠絡 • 結盟 • 合併(merger) • 購併(acquisition) • 共同投資(joint venture) • 遊說

  16. 組織與外在環境中的利害關係人 • 利害關係人與組織的互動關係 • 組織環境中利害關係人的角色 • 利害關係人與影響策略 • 利害關係人及其影響策略

  17. 組織環境中利害關係人的角色

  18. 利害關係人及其影響策略

  19. 利害關係人及其影響策略(續)

  20. 組織間的合作與競爭 • 環境變遷與組織間關係 • 傳統與現代組織間關係的特性 • 競合關係 (coopetition relationship) • 組織間的合作關係 • 企業間合作關係的展開

  21. 傳統與現代組織間關係的特性

  22. 企業間合作關係的展開

  23. Resource Dependence Theory • The goal of an organization is to minimize its dependence on other organizations for the supply of scare resources and to find ways of influencing them to make resources available

  24. Resource Dependence Theory (cont.) • The strength of one organization’s dependence on another depends on: • How vital the resource is to the organization’s survival • The extent that other organization’s control these resources

  25. Resource Dependence Theory (cont.) • An organization has to manage two aspects of its resource dependence: • It has to exert influence over other organizations so that it can obtain resources • It must respond to the needs and demands of the other organizations in its environment

  26. 競爭取向關係—資源依賴理論觀點 • 主要內涵 • 資源依賴觀點 (resource dependence view) • 資源依賴性的四要素 • 資源的重要性 • 資源稀少性 • 少數資源供應者 • 相互依賴程度不對稱

  27. Interorganizational Strategies for Managing Resource Dependencies • Two basic types of interdependencies cause uncertainty • Symbiotic interdependencies: interdependencies that exist between an organization and its suppliers and distributors • Competitive interdependencies: interdependencies that exist among organizations that compete for scarce inputs and outputs • Organizations aim to choose the interorganizational strategy that offers the most reduction in uncertainty with the least loss of control

  28. 競爭取向關係—資源依賴理論觀點 • 資源依賴的型態 • 共生相依(symbiotic interdependence) • 競爭相依(competitive interdependence) • 組織間的相互依賴與策略應用

  29. Linkage Mechanisms • Linkage mechanisms, while controlling interdependency, require coordination • Coordination reduces each organization’s freedom to act • Organizations should choose the strategy that offers the most reduction in uncertainty for the least loss of control

  30. 組織間的相互依賴與策略應用

  31. 共生相依的管理策略 加強組織聲譽 籠絡與收買 伙伴關係 合併與購併 競爭相依的管理策略 勾結與聯合 第三團體的連結 伙伴關係 合併與購併 競爭取向關係—資源依賴理論觀點

  32. Interorganizational Strategies for Managing Symbiotic Interdependencies

  33. Strategies for Managing Symbiotic Resource Interdependencies • Developing a good reputation • Reputation: a state in which an organization is held in high regard and trusted by other parties because of its fair and honest business practices • Reputation and trust are the most common linkage mechanisms for managing symbiotic interdependencies

  34. Strategies for Managing Symbiotic Resource Interdependencies (cont.) • Cooptation: a strategy that manages symbiotic interdependencies by giving them a stake in the organization • Make outside stakeholders inside stakeholders • Interlocking directorate: a linkage that results when a director from one company sits on the board of another company

  35. Strategies for Managing Symbiotic Resource Interdependencies (cont.) • Strategic alliances: an agreement that commits two or more companies to share their resources to develop joint new business opportunities • An increasingly common mechanism for managing symbiotic (and competitive) interdependencies • The more formal the alliance, the stronger and more prescribed the linkage and tighter control of joint activities • Greater formality preferred with uncertainty

  36. Types of Strategic Alliances • Long-term contracts • Networks: a cluster of different organizations whose actions are coordinated by contracts and agreements rather than through a formal hierarchy of authority • Minority ownership • Keiretsu:a group of organizations, each of which owns shares in the other organizations in the group, that work together to further the group’s interests

  37. Types of Strategic Alliances

  38. Keiretsu • Japanese system for achieving the benefits of formal linkages without incurring its costs • Example: Toyota has a minority ownership in its suppliers • Affords substantial control over the exchange relationship • Avoids bureaucratic cost of ownership and opportunism

  39. The Fuyo Keiretsu

  40. Types of Strategic Alliances (cont.) • Joint venture: a strategic alliance among two or more organizations that agree to jointly establish and share the ownership of a new business

  41. Strategies for Managing Symbiotic Resource Interdependencies (cont.) • Merger and takeover: results in resource exchanges taking place within one organization rather than between organizations • New organization better able to resist powerful suppliers and customers • Normally involves great expense and problems managing the new business

  42. Interorganizational Strategies for Managing Competitive Interdependencies

  43. Strategies for Managing Competitive Resource Interdependencies • Collusion and cartels • Collusion: a secret agreement among competitors to share information for a deceitful or illegal purpose • May influence industry standards • Cartel: an association of firms that explicitly agrees to coordinate their activities • May influence price structure of market

  44. Strategies for Managing Competitive Resource Interdependencies (cont.) • Third-party linkage mechanism: a regulatory body that allows organizations to share information and regulate the way they compete • Strategic alliances: can be used to manage both symbiotic and competitive interdependencies • Merger and takeover: the ultimate method for managing problematicinterdependencies

  45. 競爭取向關係—群體生態學理論觀點 • 主要內涵 • 群體生態學理論 (population ecology theory) • 環境利基(environmental niches) • 群體生態學的特性 • 關注的焦點是組織的群體而非單一的組織 • 單純以存活或滅亡來評斷組織群體的效能,存活者是有效能的,而滅亡者即是無效能的

  46. 競爭取向關係—群體生態學理論觀點 • 認為環境對組織的影響是極具有決定性的 • 假設特定的環境可以容納的組織數量是有限的 • 認為組織群體演化有三個過程 • 差異 (variation) • 選擇(selection) • 維持(retention)

  47. 群體生態學中組織群體演化的三個過程

  48. 競爭取向關係—群體生態學理論觀點 • 組織出生率 • 組織的生存策略 • 通才型組織(generalist organization) • 專才型組織(specialist organization)

  49. 組織的出生率

  50. 合作取向關係—體制理論觀點 • 主要內涵 • 體制理論(institution theory) • 正當性(legitimacy) • 組織同形化 • 同形化 (isomorphism)