A Short Course In Food Safety Iowa Department of Inspections and Appeals Food and Consumer Safety Bureau Lucas State Office Building Des Moines, Iowa 50319 515.281.6538
Food Safety Begins With You Follow these tips! Keep hair restrained Do not eat, drink, or smoke while at work Be healthy Wear clean, neat clothing Do not wear jewelry Have clean, washed hands and fingernails
Demonstration of Knowledge The person in charge must be knowledgeable in food safety and has the responsibility to make sure the staff is knowledgeable in foodborne illness prevention and food safety principles. The person in charge can demonstrate knowledge by showing compliance with the Food Code, answering questions correctly or having completed an approved food safety certification course.
Handwashing: Improper or lack of handwashing causes 26% of all foodborne illnesses. 1. Wet hands with hot running water. 2. Apply soap. 4. Clean under fingernails and between fingers. 3. Rub hands together for 20 seconds. 5. Rinse hands thoroughly under running water. 6. Dry hands.
WASH YOUR HANDS AFTER THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES…. • Using the restroom • Smoking, eating, drinking, chewing gum or tobacco • Handling raw meat • Touching unclean equipment • Sneezing, coughing, or using a handkerchief or tissue • After using any cleaning, polishing, or sanitizing chemical • After taking out the garbage • After touching clothing or aprons • After clearing or busing dirty tables • After touching anything else that may contaminate hands, such as unsanitized equipment, work surfaces, or wash cloths
Use Proper Hygienic Habits • Frequent and thorough handwashing is of major importance to the production of safe foods. • Safely protect infected cuts and burns with gloves or finger cots. • Send home or reassign to non-food duty employees that have severe respiratory illness, diarrhea, or vomiting. Enforce a sick leave policy. • Do not use common cloth towels for hand drying. • Restrict eating, drinking, and smoking to non food production areas. • No artificial fingernails or polish in areas where food preparation is being conducted unless plastic or latex gloves are worn.
Sore throat • Jaundice • Fever • Diarrhea • Vomiting Disease Reporting Exclude foodhandlers diagnosed with a foodborne illness from the establishment. Exclude foodhandlers from working with or around food if they have the following symptoms: • An employee diagnosed with one of the following must be reported to the regulatory authority: • Salmonella typhi • E. coli 0157:H7 • Shigella spp. • Hepatitis A Virus • Noro Virus
What Are Potentially Hazardous Foods? • PHF means any food or food ingredient, natural or synthetic, capable of supporting the rapid growth of microorganisms. They are: • Of animal origin, such as meat, milk, fish, shellfish, crustacean, or poultry. • Of plant origin that has been heat treated (for example: cooked rice, beans, potatoes, and pasta) • Raw seed sprouts. • Cut, sliced, diced tomotatoes Examples:
Use That Thermometer! • Keep clean • Calibrate regularly • Never use glass thermometers • Measure internal temperatures in the thickest part of the product • Provide a thin probe thermometer to measure the temperature of thin portion foods, such as ground beef patties, fish fillets, etc.
Calibrate That Thermometer! Ice Point Method • Step OneFill container with crushed ice and water • Step TwoSubmerge sensing area of the thermometer stem in ice water • Step Three Adjust calibration nut until the thermometer reads 32oF (0oC)
Safe Cooking Temperatures 155oF (69o) Beef Roasts
Proper Hot Holding Hot foods shall be maintained at an internal temperature of 135o F or higher. • Use only hot-holding equipment that can keep foods at 135o F or higher. • Stir foods at regular intervals. • Measure internal temperatures at least every two hours. • Discard hot foods after four hours if they have not been held at or above 135o F.
Proper Cold Holding Cold Foods shall be maintained at an internal temperature of 41o F or less • Use only cold-holding equipment that can keep foods at 41oF or lower. • Measure internal temperatures at least every two hours. • Protect food from contaminants with covers or food shields.
Cooling Food Improper cooling causes 63% of foodborne illnesses • Acceptable method of cooling food: • Cool hot cooked food from: • 135oF to 70oF within two hours, and then 41oF or lower in an additional four hours for a total cooling time of six hours. • Methods of cooling: • Reduce the quantity of the food you are cooling. • Use blast chillers before placing food into refrigerated storage. • Use ice-water baths. • Add ice or cool water as an ingredient. • Use a steam jacket kettle as a cooler. • Stir foods to cool them faster and more evenly.
Proper Reheating • Product must be rapidly reheated (2 hours or less) to an internal temperature of 165oF. • Includes all leftovers served hot. • Product that is held for service the next day. • Measure internal temperature of foods with a bi-metallic or thermocouple stem thermometer. • Do not mix new product with leftover items. • No crock pots, bain-maries, or steam tables may be used for reheating. • After reaching 165oF, product may be held at 135oF.
Avoid Cross-Contamination Proper Refrigerator Storage Cooking Temp. Ready to eat items Fish 145oF Beef Roasts 145oF Ground beef/Pork 155oF Poultry 165oF The higher the cooking temperature of the food, the lower it should be stored on the shelves. Store raw, meat, poultry, and fish separately from cooked and ready-to-eat foods whenever possible to prevent cross-contamination. If not possible, always store prepared or ready-to-eat foods above raw meat, poultry, and fish in refrigerators.
Avoid Cross-Contamination • Prepare raw meats, fish, poultry in separate areas from produce or cooked and ready to eat foods. • Assign specific equipment (cutting boards, utensils, and containers) to each type of food product. • Clean and sanitize all work surfaces, equipment, and utensils after each use. • Make sure cloths or towels used for wiping spills are not used for any other purpose. • Keep wiping cloths in sanitizer between use. • Make sure employees wash their hands between tasks.
Proper Thawing Procedures • There are four acceptable ways to thaw food. • In a refrigerator, at temperatures of 41oF or lower. • Submerged under running potable water, at a temperature of 70oF or lower. • In a microwave oven, if the food will be cooked immediately after thawing. • As a part of a cooking procedure, as long as the product meets the required minimum internal cooking temperature.
Manual Cleaning and Sanitizing Three-Compartment Sink for Manual Washing, Rinsing, and Sanitizing Step 1: Rinse, scrape, or soak all items before washing Step 2: Wash items in the first sink in a detergent solution. Water temperature should be at least 110oF. Use a brush, cloth or nylon scrubber. Step 3: Immerse or spray-rinse items in second sink. Water temperature should be at least 110oF. Remove all traces of detergent. Step 4: Immerse items in third sink in hot water or a chemical-sanitizing solution. If hot water immersion is used, the water temperature must be at least 171oF. Items must be immersed for 30 seconds. If chemical sanitizing is used, the sanitzer must be mixed at the proper concentration.
TOXIC ITEMS • Toxic items are required to be stored separately from food and food contact surfaces. • Toxic items, such as spray bottles, are required to be labeled with the common name of the product.
NOROVIRUS • 70% of all foodborne outbreaks are caused by norovirus. • Norovirus outbreaks are often associated with ready-to-eat foods (relish trays, wedding cakes, rolls, nacho & cheese) • No bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods. Hand washing alone may not be an effective barrier to prevent the spread of the norovirus.
Approved Source • Food must come from approved source. From another licensed source. • Meat & Poultry shall bear the USDA/Iowa label of inspection. • “Not for sale” farm raised meat, eggs, and home canned goods (salsa, vegetables, tomatoe juice, ect..) are not allowed for use. • All food must be prepared on site. Items can not be cooked at home then sold at establsihment (temporary or year-round).
Only pasteurized juice may be served. • Pasteurized eggs or egg products shall be substituted for raw eggs in the preparation of foods such as Caesar salad, hollandaise sauce or Bernaise sauce, mayonnaise, , meringue, eggnog, ice cream, and egg-fortified beverages. • Raw eggs may be used if they are combined (scrambled, etc) immediately before cooking for one consumers serving at a single meal and cooked to a minimum temperature of 145oF. For at least 15 seconds. • Raw eggs may be used if they are combined as an ingredient immediately before baking and the eggs are thoroughly cooked to a ready-to-eat form, such as a cake, muffin, bread, etc.
The following foods may not be served: • Raw animal foods such as raw fish, raw-marinated fish, raw molluscan shellfish, and steak tartare. • A partially cooked animal food such as lightly cooked fish, rare meat, soft-cooked eggs that are made from raw eggs, and meringue. • Raw seed sprouts.
Reserving of Foods • Normally non-potentially hazardous foods that are dispensed so that it is protected from contamination and the container is closed between uses such as a narrow neck bottle containing catsup, steak sauce, etc. and packaged non-potentially hazardous foods that are in the unopened original package can be reserved.
The Previous Does not Apply in a High-Risk Population When: • Any food served to patients or clients who are under contact precautions in medical isolation or quarantine or protective environment isolation may not be re-served to others outside. • Packages of food from any patients, clients, or other consumers should not be re-served to persons in protective environment isolation