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Library Models and Standards and Their Availability in the Semantic Web Workshop LIDA 2012. Exposing heterogeneous data more efficiently, using Semantic Web tools. data.bnf.fr. Françoise Leresche Bibliothèque nationale de France Bibliographic and Digital Information Department

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  1. Library Models and Standards and Their Availability in the Semantic Web WorkshopLIDA 2012 Exposing heterogeneous data more efficiently, using Semantic Web tools data.bnf.fr Françoise Leresche Bibliothèque nationale de France Bibliographic and Digital Information Department Standards and Models Unit

  2. Bibliothèque nationale de France Millions of resources of any kind (books, scores, maps, still images, audiovisual materials…) published items / manuscripts and archival resources Made Web available through digitization

  3. Different logics • Published resources • Bibliographic description (ISBD) and MARC format • Archival resources • Archival description (tree structure) and XML-EAD format • Digitized resources • Simple Dublin Core format

  4. Catalogues BnF Catalogue Général 15 millions of bibliographic records Legal deposit of French edition BnF Archives et Manuscrits (BAM) Dozens of thousands of manuscripts and archival resources Mediaeval manuscripts, authors' archives Gallica 1,5 million of digital objects The largest digital libraryin the French-speaking world

  5. Resources Often hidden in the "Deep Web," i.e.: buried in catalogues scattered among various addresses

  6. Web practices • Less people come in through home pages • they access site pages directly • Keyword research • associated with final contente.g.: a book title • Navigating links • on blogs, sites, networks

  7. Organizing information • Gathering contents, links, and services • Pages for human reading • Data for machine reading • Some tools are at hand: • Authority records • Description standards • Perennial identifiers • The project

  8. The project • Data clustering • Published resources • Archival resources • Digital resources • About authors, works, and topics • Providing • HTML pages • RDF structured, open, W3C standards compliant data

  9. For what purposes? • To propose services • Beyond warehouses • For any audience • To open data • and make it free • To provide reliable links

  10. The project Links for authors, works, and topics • Links to books, manuscripts, images… • disseminated to any audience • through user-friendly HTML pages

  11. HTML pages • In order to: • provide content • create links to resources • lead users to services

  12. HTML pages • Clustering on one page • all the information relating to • an author • a work • a topic • from heterogeneous formats • using Semantic Web technologies

  13. Semantic Web • Combining a traditional Web interface with a Semantic web approach • Gathering information around a concept • In addition to resources, an address and meaningful machine-usable data • RDF chosen as resource description framework

  14. Elaborationon data • Relying on • authority records, • and persistent identifiers • Period of reflection on standards • Defining a model • Selecting vocabularies • Data alignment and integration

  15. How doesit work? Digitized resources Human-friendly Web pages BnF Archives et Manuscrits Clustering - Alignment Machine-friendly data BnF Catalogue général

  16. Functional principles Web Interface Linked Data Publication - control Page concepts leading to Clustering - Aligning Other libraries Extracting - Transforming Other resources Wikipedia, etc. Autres sources Wikipedia. Catalogue général BnF Archives & manuscrits Gallica Virtualexhibitions • Mandragore

  17. Authority records • ID card for an entity (person, corporate body, work…) • the preferred form • variant forms (references) • notes • sources • links to other records • an identifier (at the BnF, ARK identifier)

  18. Authority record for a workassociated with an author Link to the authority recordfor the creator of the work Link tobibliographic records Preferred access pointtitle of work Links to other works (whole/part relationships) Persistent identifier

  19. Persistent identifiers • Persistent identifier • to recognize a resource • uniquely • on the long term • Stable Reference • Naming • Finding • Citing • Two objectives • Access • Preservation

  20. Persistent identifiers: ARK http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb11992684q/UNIMARC Qualifier (interpreted by the Name Mapping Authority) Label Name Mapping Authority Host (NMAH) Name(assigned by the Name Assigning Authority) Name Assigning Authority Number (NAAN)

  21. FRBR model Creation (at the top level of abstraction) Work e.g.: Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque, E. A. Poe Version under which a Work is available (type of content, language, contribution) Expression e.g.: French translation by Baudelaire Publication (production of the book: publisher, printer) Manifestation e.g.: Ed. Paris : M. Lévy frères,1875. xxxi-330 p. Physical copy Item e.g.: digitized copy ark:/12148/bpt6k2029183

  22. Why FRBR? • Organized display • of the various versions of a Work • of the various productions of a Person • Better matches to Web users' various queries

  23. Why FRBR? • To interrelate persons and works at the right level of contribution • Creator of a work • author, composer… • Contributor to an edition • translator, author of a foreword… • Producer of a publication • publisher, printer, distributor • Name associated with a single exemplar • owner, annotator…

  24. Vocabularies • No "records," only data • for concepts SKOS • for authors FOAF • for works RDA • implementation of the FRBR modelhttp://www.rdatoolkit.org/backgroundfiles/RelationshipsOverview_10_9_09.pdf • definition of the roles associated with the various types of contribution

  25. Virtualexhibitions BnF Authorities BnF data sources Alignments with external data

  26. Complex ontology 27 Romain WENZ BnF-IBN

  27. "Author" page

  28. "Work" page

  29. RDF data • http://data.bnf.fr/11890582/charles_baudelaire/rdf.xml • http://data.bnf.fr/11947965/charles_baudelaire_les_fleurs_du_mal/rdf.xml

  30. RDF data <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb118905823">   <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept" />   <rdfs:seeAlso rdf:resource="http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb118905823" />   <foaf:focus rdf:resource="http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb118905823#foaf:Person" />   <skos:editorialNote>DBF. - GDEL. - Laffont Bompiani, Auteurs</skos:editorialNote>   <skos:editorialNote>Baudelaire / Isabelle Viéville-Degeorges, impr. 2011</skos:editorialNote>   <skos:editorialNote>Les Fleurs du mal / Charles Baudelaire, 1869</skos:editorialNote>   <skos:editorialNote>BN Cat. gén.. - BN Cat. gén. 1960-1969. - BN Cat. gén. suppl.</skos:editorialNote>   <owl:sameAs rdf:resource="http://viaf.org/viaf/17218730" />   <skos:prefLabel>Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867)</skos:prefLabel>   <skos:altLabel>Baudelaire- Dufays (1821-1867)</skos:altLabel>   <skos:altLabel>Baudelaire-Dufays (1821-1867)</skos:altLabel>   <skos:altLabel>Pierre Dufaÿs (1821-1867)</skos:altLabel>   <skos:altLabel>Baudelaire (1821-1867)</skos:altLabel>   <skos:altLabel>Charles Pierre Baudelaire (1821-1867)</skos:altLabel>   </rdf:Description> Authority records are regarded as concepts SKOS

  31. <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb118905823#foaf:Person">   <foaf:name>Charles Baudelaire</foaf:name>   <rdagroup2elements:fieldOfActivityOfThePerson>Littératures</rdagroup2elements:fieldOfActivityOfThePerson>   <rdagroup2elements:fieldOfActivityOfThePerson rdf:resource="http://dewey.info/class/800/" />   <foaf:familyName>Baudelaire</foaf:familyName>   <foaf:givenName>Charles</foaf:givenName>   <rdagroup2elements:placeOfDeath>Paris</rdagroup2elements:placeOfDeath>   <dc:contributor rdf:resource="http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb13911358q#frbr:Work" />   <dc:contributor rdf:resource="http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb157080678#frbr:Work" />   <dc:contributor rdf:resource="http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb16527546n#frbr:Work" />   <owl:sameAs rdf:resource="http://dbpedia.org/resource/Charles_Baudelaire" />   <rdagroup2elements:languageOfThePerson rdf:resource="http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/iso639-2/fre" />   <foaf:birthday>04-09</foaf:birthday>   <rdagroup2elements:placeOfBirth>Paris</rdagroup2elements:placeOfBirth>   <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Baudelaire_crop.jpg/200px-Baudelaire_crop.jpg" />   <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k96352b.thumbnail" />   <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b6903323t.thumbnail" /> <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k61826b.thumbnail" />   <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k118051q.thumbnail" />   <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k629005.thumbnail" />   <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k8843k.thumbnail" />   <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5839355j.thumbnail" />   <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k22909f.thumbnail" />   <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k1092623.thumbnail" />   <rdagroup2elements:dateOfDeath>31-08-1867</rdagroup2elements:dateOfDeath>   <rdagroup2elements:dateOfBirth>09-04-1821</rdagroup2elements:dateOfBirth>   <dc:title xml:lang="fr">Charles Baudelaire</dc:title> <foaf:page rdf:resource="http://data.bnf.fr/11890582/charles_baudelaire/" />   <rdagroup2elements:biographicalInformation>Poète. - Critique d'art. - Traducteur d'Edgar Allan Poe. - Signa ses premières oeuvres de son patronyme et du nom de sa mère Caroline Archenbaut-Dufays</rdagroup2elements:biographicalInformation> <foaf:gender>male</foaf:gender>   <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Person" />   <dc:date>1821-1867</dc:date>   <xfoaf:nationality rdf:resource="http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/countries/fr" /> </rdf:Description> RDF data Identifying theperson  FOAF

  32. RDF data • Baudelaire as translator [contributor] Poe, Edgar Allan. Histoires grotesques et sérieuses • Baudelaire as author [creator]Baudelaire, Charles. Le spleen de Paris <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb120434510#frbr:Work"> <dc:creator rdf:resource="http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb118905823#foaf:Person" /> </rdf:Description> <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb32536208w#frbr:Expression"> <dc:contributor rdf:resource="http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb118905823#foaf:Person" /> <marcrel:trl rdf:resource="http://data.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb118905823#foaf:Person" /> </rdf:Description>

  33. Benefits • Visibility • Being on users' path • Finding resources without knowing of them • Knowledge enhancement • Simple pages and large audience • Creating links • Enabling data reuse

  34. Benefits • For the BnF • Experimentation • FRBRizing catalogue records • Future developments for the catalogue • New mode of disseminating bibliographic information • Showing up in the Linked Data world

  35. Presence in the Linked Data cloud http://richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2011-09-19_colored.html

  36. Thank you!

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