Suggested Sequence of Covering Government Chapters [for One Semester Course] Chapter 1: Foundations of American Government Chapter 2: Origins of Government Chapter 3: The Constitution Chapter 4: Federalism Chapters 5 & 6: Public Opinion and Political Parties [no test on these two chapters, just presentations] Chapter 19: Civil Liberties: First Amendment Freedoms Chapter 20: Civil Liberties: Protecting Individual Rights Chapter 21: Civil Rights Chapters 10, 11, & 12: The Congress Chapters 13, 14, & 15: The Presidency Chapter 18: The Judiciary Final Exam: Over the above 15 chapters
Government MAGRUDER's Chapter 1
1. How many senators are there? 2. Who are the two senators from Texas? _________________ & ____________. 3. What is the salary of a senator? a. $25,000 b. $100,100 c. $174,900 d. 203,100 4. How many representatives are there? _____ 5. How many electors are there?______________ 6. How many electoral votes does it take to win the presidency?_____ 7. What state is largest in population and has the most reps?__________________ 8. How many reps does Texas have? ______________________________ 9. How old do you have to be to run for the House?_____ Senate? __ 10. Who is Speaker of the House?__________ 11. How old does a person have to be to be president? _____ 12. How many terms may a president serve?_____ 13. What is the salary of the President? a. $25,000 b. $200,000 c. $400,000 14. Which political party generally is considered liberal? _______ 15. How many justices sit on the Supreme Court? _____ 16. Name the female S.C. justices. __________________________ 17. How long is the term of a Supreme Court Justice? __________ 18. Bonus: About how long does it take you to eat a soft taco at Taco Bell?_____ Pre-Government Quiz . 100 - 2 from each state Ted Cruz John Cornyn 435 538 – 3 from DC 270 CA - 52; 7 sts have 1 32 – 30 in House and 2 in Senate 30 25 John Boehner 35 2 Democrat 9 Ruth B. Ginsberg,SoniaSotomayer, & Elena Kagan Life
The New Citizenship Test For those of us who weren’t born here, its never been easy to become a citizen. As of October 1, 2011, in addition to passing a reading and writing test of English proficiency, all immigrants must pass a new civics exam. The civics test is an oral exam, with an Immigration Services (INS) officer asking the application 10 questions from a list of 100. All applicants must answer 6 of 10 questions correctly to pass the exam. 1. Who elects the President of the United States? _____________________________________________ 2. How many amendments are there in the Constitution? _______________________________________ 3. What are the three branches of our government? ___________________________________________ 4. Who makes the laws in the United States? ________________________________________________ 5. How many Senators are there in Congress? _______________________________________________ 6. Can you name the two Senators from your state? ___________________________________________ 7. For how long do we elect each Senator? __________________________________________________ 8. How many representatives are there in Congress? __________________________________________ 9. For how long do we elect the Representatives? _____________________________________________ 10. What are the first 10 amendments to the Constitution called? _________________________________ 11. Who is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court? ___________________________________ 12. Who said, "Give me liberty or give me death." _____________________________________________ 13. Who was the main writer of the Declaration of Independence? ________________________________ 14. When was the Declaration of Independence adopted? ______________________________________ 15. Who wrote “The Star Spangled Banner”? ________________________________________________ 16. Who was the President during the Civil War? _____________________________________________ 17. Who is considered the father of our country? _____________________________________________ 18. Who has the power to declare war? _____________________________________________________ 19. In what year was the Constitution written? ________________________________________________ 20. Who becomes President of the USA if the President dies while in office? ________________________ 21. Who becomes president of the if the President & Vice President should die? _____________________ 22. A person who is nominated and confirmed for the Supreme Court serves for how long?_____________ 23. How many terms may a President serve? ________________________________________________ 24. What is the capital of your state? _______________________________________________________ Bonus: Electoral college 27 Legislative, executive, and judicial Congress 100 Ted Cruz & John Cornyn 6 years 435 2 years Bill of Rights John Roberts Patrick Henry Thomas Jefferson 1776 Francis Scott Key Abe Lincoln George Washington Congress 1787 Vice President Speaker of the House Life 2 terms of 4 years Austin
Creating A Government • Name of country • Currency [both coins and paper money] • National Anthem • Flag • Style of government • Role of the government in the economy • Preamble [purpose of government] [Presentation should be appropriate for the classroom] *Grade will be based on participation of each member and presentation to the class.
Definitions – Chapter 1 Djibouti Texas TheorySummary ForceStrong person or group took control of others. EvolutionaryState developed after early families chose to settle land and become tribes. Divine RightGod gave those of royal birth the right to rule. Social ContractState exists because people voluntarily organized themselves to improve their lives.
Definitions – Chapter 1 1. Government – institution that makes & enforces public policy. They use imprisonment &execution to control human behavior within their territory. 2. Sovereignty – political independence or absolute power within its boundaries. 3. Popular Sovereignty– rule by the people. People are the source of all power. People are source of power [The group makes each individual stronger] 4. Divine Right Theory– ruler’s authority comes from God. 5. Social Contract Theory– the state exists to serve the will of the people. The people are the source of political power. (Hobbes and Locke)
Forms of Government [Where is the power? Unitary, Federal, Confederacy] Definitions Sov. Union France Three Forms of Geographical “G”s[geographical distribution of power] [“What parts of government hold power?”] 6. Unitary Government– central G has all the powers & local governments get their power from the central G. [most nations] [France, Gr. Britain, & Israel] 7. Confederate “G”(confederation)-an alliance of independent States give certain powers to a central government. The states retain their sovereignty, which means that each has supreme authority within its boundaries [Articles of confed.1781-1789] 8. FederalG(Federation)-G powers are divided between a nat’l G and a local G(states). The states are independent but co-equal. This is a compromise between unitary G and a Confederate G [U.S.]
Definitions What is the relationship between theexecutive &legislative branches? Presidential Parliamentary 2 forms of Representative Democracy Presidential and Parliamentary Forms of Government Presidential Parliamentary Legislature Chief Exec responsible to and holds office at pleasure of legislature Legislature Independent and Coequal Chief Exec [9 & 10 – How the legislative ( lawmaking) & executive (law-enforcing) share power] 9. Presidential Government - separation of government powers between thelegislative & executive branches. (U.S.) 10. Parliamentary Government – chief executive must come from the legislative branch (Parliament). Most countries have parliamentary government. David Cameron Great Britain
Number Of People Who Hold Power 11. Dictatorship – one person has unlimited power. [Libya] A. Authoritarian – controls political behavior of its citizens. Citizens do have freedom in every thing except politics. B. Totalitarian – controls every aspect of its citizen’s lives. There are labor camps or mental hospitals for dissidents. There are laws, rules and regulations that guide every aspect of individual behavior. [Nazi Germany] 12. Democracy – rule by the people. A. Direct democracy– mass participation by citizens in government. [Greek city-states] B. Indirect Democracy(Representative) [Republic] – representatives represent us. The elected officials are expected to represent the voter’s views and interests. [U.S. – each of the 435 reps represent 610,000 people] Definitions Dictator Democracy – mass participation
Chapter 1. Foundations of American Government • Section 1. Government and the State • Section Focus: • What are the fourbasic characteristics of a state? • What are thefour theories on the origin of the state? • Why does government exist? Test Questions state–countryor nation [has sovereignty(political independence)] State– one of the 50 States [do not have sovereignty] *state– people living in a territory, organized politically and having the power to make & enforce law. [about 200 states] Cuba 1 2 Alaska
*What is Government? 1. Government is the institution that makes and enforces public policies [all those things a government decides to do such as the income tax, minimum wage law, etc.] [Government is the oldest of human inventions.] 2. Government consists of lawmakers, administrators, and judges. [What would life be like if there were no government (no police, public schools, or courts)] 3. Do we need a government? How is government involved with your personal life that you don’t agree with? Should they be involved in matters of personal safety [protective helmets, seat belts]? You will be fined for not wearing a seat belt 3 4
All governments must have three types of power: Legislative(make laws/ public policy) Executive(carries out/ enforces laws) Judicial (interprets/ decides fairness of laws) These powers are commonly found in a constitution which sets out the laws and principles of a government. Do these powers have to be independent or separately held by different government bodies? NO!!! Authoritarian Governments Dictatorships - Hitler, Stalin, Mao, Castro, Saddam Hussein Oligarchies-some monarchies, South Africa -20% of the popu- lation (whites) controlled 80% of the population (blacks). Democracy/Republic Ultimate power belongs to the citizens!
Government Defined: An institution (or a tool) which those with power use to carry out public policies. What are public policies? Plans of action created by the government that deal with a variety of issues. In order for governments to exist, they must have authority or power, which is the ability to produce effects on others or the potential to influence others[e.g. power over nations, states, cities, schools, classrooms, athletic teams, gangs, individuals].
Why the Need for Government? The life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. There are many views on why government is important: Thomas Hobbes, author of the Leviathan, suggested that governments are needed because without it, we would all be in the “state of nature”, warring against each other to no end… we would seek out our own self interests, much like animals, without enforceable laws to constrain us. In other words, according to Hobbes, the government provides us with fear of being punishedif we break the law (and that is a good thing), so citizens are less inclined to do harm to others. The absence of government is known as “anarchy”… the state of nature! With anarchy there are no laws, and therefore no consequences to doing harm to others. Thomas Hobbes
*Four Characteristics of a state . 1. *Population Smallest in population: Nauru (now rue), a Pacific island state (one of the 207 countries) has only 10,287 people. [Coral island just south of equator] They lead the world in Type II diabetes. [95% of adults] Thesecond smallest is San Marino[next to Italy],which has 22,000 people. It claims to be the oldest state in Europe, going back to 301 A.D. The largest in population: China, at 1.3 billion is the largest state. Every 2 seconds, another Chinese is born; so every minute there are 30 more. Every hour, 1,800 are born; that’s 43,000 per day. 1,300,000 are born every month; that’s over 16 million a year. 6 2. *Territory The smallest in territory is Nauru at 8 square miles. Phosphates (fertilizer from bird droppings) makes mining important here. 2nd is San Marina at 24 sq. mi. The largest in territory is Russia which is about 6.6 million sq. mi. which is 1/6 the land surface of the earth. [U.S. is 3.7 mil. sq. miles] Nauru 5 7
. 3. Sovereignty Sovereignty means political independence or absolute power within its “territorial boundaries.” Each state decides its own policies. In theory no state has the right to interfere with the internal affairs of another state. Popular(rule by the people] Sovereignty – people are the only source of government. Government must be conducted with the consent of the people. The location of sovereignty (people (democracy) or a dictator] is very important. 8 9 4. Government *Government is a political organization. Over 200 states have governments (machinery & personnel by which a state is ruled). Government is the agency the state uses to exert its will and accomplish its goals. 5
*Four Theories of How Government Developed 1.*Force theory– established through force. The state was developed by force as one strong person or group conquered a given territory, and then forced everyone living in their territory to submit to their will. When this happened, all essential parts of the nation state were in place - people, territory, government [political organization], and sovereignty[power within its own territory]. 10 2. *Evolutionary Theory – went from early family[simple government] to the clan, to thetribe, to agricultural society [could settle down and not be a nomad], then togovernment. Agricultural society Government Early Family Clan Tribe 11
Four Theories of How Government Developed [continued] 3. Divine Right Theory– authority from God. “God gave those of royal birth the right to rule.” This was the most universally accepted rule of the 17th & 18th century. During the Middle Ages many European monarchs and church officials asserted that the right to rule came directly from God. Therefore, these rulers were able to justify assuming hereditary, absolute power over their peoples. People who criticized or opposed the government were often accused of treason or heresy. Today, the monarchs of Saudi Arabia are among the few rulers who claim they have a divine right to rule. So, religion is the basis of their authority. 12
Four Theories of How Government Developed [continued] 4. SocialContract Theory– the state exists to serve the will of the people and they are the only source of political power. In order to make life more pleasant and safe, people made a contract together and formed a state. But, they had to give up their own unlimited freedom in order to insure the well- being of all. This idea was originally advanced by the English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes [1588-1679]. For Hobbes, the contract between the state and the people was final. The state had the absolute right to rule as it wished. He was greatly influenced by the chaos of the English Civil war during the 17thcentury. Life would be horrible without government to protect us from each other and from outsiders. In this contract we surrender our right to violenceor to oppose the laws created by the sovereign. Hobbs claimed that to civilize their community, the people should get together and give power to a sovereign governmental authority – preferably a king. 16 13 Thomas Hobbes 14
Hobbes [continued] The government enforces order by wielding what Hobbes called the “sword of justice” to enforce laws, punish criminals defend the community from outsiders. Hobbes held that all people fear each otherand for this reason must submit to the absolute supremacy of the state in both secular and religious matters. England ruled for centuries without permission from the people. To Hobbes, preserving life was the most important function of government.In his classic philosophical treatise, Leviathan [la vi’ a thon] (1651), Hobbes described life without government as life in a “state of nature.” Without rules, people would live like animals, stealing and killing for personal benefit. Hobbes’ classic phrase, “Life in a state of nature would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” He believed that a single ruler [sovereign] must possess unquestioned authority to guarantee the safety of the weak against attacks of the strong. Hobbes characterized his all-powerful government as Leviathan, a biblical sea monster. He believed that a complete obedience to the Leviathan’s strict laws was a small price to pay for the security of living in a civil society.
Hobbes[continued] In his focus on life in the cruel state of nature, Hobbes saw government primarily as a means of survival. This engraving shows Hobbes sovereign brandishing a sword in one hand and the scepter of justice in the other. He watches over an orderly town, made peace- ful by his absolute authority. But note that the sovereign’s body is Leviathan, Hobbes’s All Powerful Sovereign composed of tiny images of his subjects. He exists only through them. Such government power can be created only if men “confer all their power and strength upon one man, that will reduce all their wills into one will”.
Other philosophers such as John Locke disagreed. Locke believed that final authority stayed with the the people. Thus the contract could be renegotiated if thestate acted in ways unacceptable to the people. Thomas Jefferson called our Declaration of Inde- pendence“pure Locke.” It laid its basis for revolution on George III and his ministers violating the social contract. Many of Locke’s political ideas, such as those relating to natural rights, property rights, the duty of the government to protect these rights, and the rule of the majority, were embodied in the U.S. Constitution. The consent of the people was the important thing. The people, not the ruler, should make the rules, Locke argued that people are born with natural rights to life, liberty, and property that no G can take away. The purpose of Gwas toprotect their natural rights. A “G” that interfered with those rights should not be obeyed. The consent of the people is critical to Locke. There should be no restrictions on the people without their permission. A “G” that violates its duties by taking the property of the people, declares war on the people, and the people have a right to defend themselves. They can revolt, that is, replace the government. 14 15 John Locke
John Locke [continued] The government should rule, not by force, but by consent of the people. Locke believed people should submit to the will of the majority, but the majority should not be able to enslave the minority - by taking their property and liberty. He felt all people were born good, independent, and equal. Locke believed people had some rights [life, liberty, and private property] that government must not deny, no matter what the majority says.
*The Purpose of Government The Preamble of the Constitutionexplains the purpose of governmentas: 17
Or, Let’s Listen To Deputy Barney Fife “RECITE” the Preamble We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. He learned it in high school so he can spit it right out!!! http://teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=16465&title=Barney_Fife___The_Preamble_To_The_Constitution
The Purpose of Government  • To Form a More Perfect Union • [In union there is strength]
I. To Form a More Perfect Union • The First Goal… • This means the government constantly seeks to create a strong and unified nation… this was a lesson learned from the failures of the Articles of Confederation • Ways this is done… • Congress creates laws and governmental policies that help the economy, protect individual rights, and promote justice (Legislative) • The President ensures that laws are carried out and determines the direction of the nation (Executive) • The Courts ensure that laws are fair (Judicial)
The Purpose of Government  2. To EstablishJustice– The law should be administered reasonably, fairly, and impartially. [Jefferson said this was the most sacred duty of government]. MLK said, “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” 18
II. Establish Justice • The Second Goal… • The Constitution seeks to ensure that our laws are fair and equal for every citizen, but this is not an easy task. As President Jimmy Carter once said, “The sad duty of politics is to establish justice in a sinful world”. • In the United States, we have had a tumultuous experience with this goal… (slavery, women’s rights, discrimination, child labor, etc.) • Justice can be established through laws and policies and by court decisions.
The Purpose of Government  3. To Insure Domestic Tranquility - Without order, people would live in anarchy. Example: Cowboy fans being patted down before entering the new stadium.
The Purpose of Government James Madison John Adams “But what is government itself but the greatest of all reflections on human nature? If men were angels, no government would be necessary.” – James Madison-
3. Ensure Domestic Tranquility Domestic Tranquility means “peace at home”. In order to ensure this, we create government entities, like police forces, the FBI and the National Guard can be used in emergencies. Good laws and their enforcement ensure that we have “peace at home”. Again, the “state of nature” (anarchy) must be avoided. Child soldier in Uganda
4. The Purpose of Government 4. Provide for the Common Defense - The state’s security rests on wise defense and foreign policies. [Reagan said, “We are not a warlike people. Quite the opposite… But neither are we naïve or foolish. We know only too well that war comes not when the forces of freedom are strong, but when they are weak. It is then that tyrants are tempted.”]
4. Provide for the Common Defense The framers realized that a strong military was important. Without one, nations could take advantage of the United States. The security of this nation ensures its survival.
5. Promote the General Welfare 18 Promoting the general welfare refersto the governments obligation to ensure the well-being of Americans. Business owners are required to ensure the safety of their workers Workman's Compensation is available for injured workers Unemployment benefits and welfare are available for out of work citizens Social Security guarantees some income to workers upon retirement Ensuring the education of children Some nations with command economies ensure even more, such as jobs, health care, transportation, energy, etc.
6. *To Secure the Blessings of Liberty[not subject to restrictions] Freedom is necessary for a democracy. This liberty [freedom] cannot be absolute, that is, it cannot interfere with other freedoms. Clarence Darrow said, “You can only be free if I am free.” Liberty is the freedom to live as you please, providing you do not victimize others… Liberty is a fragile principle. So, YES- our freedoms are extensive, but limited. Every generation must take up the torch of liberty and pass it on the next. We must be willing to serve our nation and become productive citizens.
Types of Governments Classic Forms FEUDALISM is a system of rule by lords who owed loyalty to their king A CLASSIC REPUBLIC is a representative democracy in which a small group of elected officials who represent their citizens… but few people have suffrage! Both ancient Greece and Rome employed this system ABSOLUTE MONARCHIES have absolute control of the state. AUTHORITARIANISM is a government in which an individual or group has absolute authority.
Types of Governments Classic Forms DESPOTISM is when a single ruler has absolute power. LIBERAL DEMOCRACY accepts that the function of government is to serve the people by protecting their rights… the government can only exist with the consent of the governed! TOTALITARIANISMis a government that controlsevery facet of the citizens’ lives.
Who can Participate in Government? Governments are classified according to: 1. Who can participate 2. How government power is distributed geographically 3. The relationship between the 3 branches of government Democracy Dictatorship • Power rests with people • Can be direct or indirect • Direct (pure) democracy, not on national level, but some towns make decisions with citizens at town meetings • Indirect (representative) democracy, small groups of people are elected to represent citizens and express their will. Elections are held to ensure accountability. • The People are the government!!! • Power rests with a single person (autocracy) or a small group of elites (oligarchy) • All are AUTHORITARIAN… and most are totalitarian… • Single person dictatorships are rare today, but do exist • Dictatorships are militaristic and usually take power by force • They often try to expand power through foreign aggression.
Forms of Government Focus1. Distinguish between unitary, federal, and confederate governments [geographical distribution of power]2. How presidential and parliamentary governments differ [law-making and law executing branch relationship]3. How a dictatorship and a democracy differ. [number of persons who can take part] Three Forms of Geographical Governments[Where is the power?] [Either the Unitary, Federation, or Confederation System] 1. UnitaryGovernment – the national [central] government has all the key powers and local governments get their power from the national government. The local governments are created for the convenience of the national government and hold only as much power as the unitary government grants them. In the U.S., the arrangement between each of the 50 State governments and that State’s county, city, or town governments is unitary. [State laws may be quite different, such as divorce laws varying from State to State. Punishment for crimes may be more severe in one State Most governments are unitary in form. Examples are Great Britain, Italy, France, Israel, and Japan. All questions relating to education, police, the use of land, and welfare are handled by the national government. 19 21 20
23 22 24 ConfederateGovernment [Confederation] – the opposite of a unitary state where an alliance of independence states give certain powers to a national government, like defense or foreign relations. Central government has limited power. The individual confederate states mayyield no sovereignty of powers to the national government and are not bound to obey its laws or government decisions. It is a voluntary association and each state can withdraw if it chooses. Confederate governments have only limited powers. The Confederate States [eleven southern States in the Civil War] and the 13 States of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation [1781-1789] are examples. TheCommonwealth of Independent States,after the breakup of the Soviet Union is a modern day example. The 12 Republics of the former Soviet Union is the only confederation in the world. So, being that confederation is veryrare,most modern states have either a unitary or federal government. 25
26 27 • Federal Government [Federation] – a compromise between a unitary state and a confederation, the powers of government are divided between a national government and local governments [States and provinces] In the U.S., the national government has certain powers and the 50 States have others [both are under the constitution and it cannot be changed by one of them without the consent of the people]. Examples are Mexico, Canada, Switzerland, India, Australia, India, and Germany. The national government’s laws are supreme, but it cannot overrule State and local laws unless they conflict with national laws. There are two basic forms of representative democracies. a. Presidential – where the voters elect an independent chief executive and independent legislature. They determine the judiciary branch. So the two independent branches have separate powers but co-equal. b. Parliamentary – the voters elect the legislature who appoint a chief executive [prevents deadlock of the presidential form] who holds office at the pleasure of the legislature. He can be forced from office. They also determine the judiciary branch. Most nations have parliamentary form of government. The executive stays in office as long as he has a majority of the parliament [“vote of confidence”]. No checks and balances in this form of government. 28 29 30 31
Presidential vs. Parliamentary Government Voters Voters Parliamentary Government Presidential Government Legislature Prime Minister/ Premier President Legislature Legislative and executive branches are separate… but the people only vote the legislature. The legislature’s majority party or an alliance of parties then chooses the executive, and he chooses a cabinet. If the prime minister and cabinet get a vote of “no confidence” a new government has to be chosen. Legislative and executive branches are separate… but the people vote for them independently.