Another PowerPoint presentation adapted from WORDSMITH: Essentials of College English by Your Friendly Neighborhood Teacher Man Enzo Silvestri BA BEd MA College English Essentials
Coordination and Subordination • Chain Letter • Dear Friend, • This is a chain letter. It is composed of a chain of simple sentences. Each sentence has one subject and one verb. Each sentence conveys one idea. Each idea is expressed in the same way. The writer has fallen into a pattern. This pattern becomes monotonous to the reader. The reader wants to scream.
How should it be done. • Joining your Sentences • If you break the chain you will have good luck. Your writing will flow more smoothly, and your readers will not scream. In this paragraph, for instance, the chain of simple sentences has been broken using techniques that you will learn in this chapter. Break the chain and set your writing free! • Sincerely • Mr. “S”
Writing Effective Sentences • Most people started writing in simple sentences. • These are sentences with just one idea in them. • That is one subject and one verb. • As you get further into college you will need to compose more complex and compound sentences and to do this your sentence structure needs to become more sophisticated to handle more complex ideas.
Why is it more complicated? The Wright Brothers plane at Kittihawk was a simple construction made of a motor, wood cloth, and wire. Today the stealthy F-22 fighter plane, like an effective sentence, is much more sophisticated.
Ideas expressed in short simple sentences can be joined to make a more effective sentence. Coordination is a method that can be done in two ways Use a comma and a FANBOYS conjunction, or Use a semicolon and a joining word. Connecting Ideas Through Coordination
Commas and FANBOYS • FANBOYS conjunctions, more commonly called coordinating conjunctions, are used with a comma to connect two independent clauses. • A clause is a grammatical unit that contains a subject and a verb. • An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence. • This is the pattern used when a FANBOYS conjunction is used with a comma to connect two independent clauses. • The comma goes before the FANBOYS conjunction.
What IS a FANBOYS? • It is NOT a bunch of young groupies who hang around the band or team hunting for autographs. • F – for • A – and • N – nor • B – but • O – or • Y – yet • S - so
FormulaIndependent clause,andindependent clause • Examples: • Marcus scanned the crowded cafeteria. (independent clause) • He did not see his friend Hannah. (Independent Clause) • These two independent clauses, or simple sentences, can be connected with a FANBOYS and a comma. • Marcus scanned the crowded cafeteria, but he did not see his friend Hannah.
The other method of coordination is by using a semicolon and a joining word. Once again, a complete sentence (independent clause) should appear on both sides of the semicolon. Example: Mary thought she would have extra money left over at the end of the month. She did not anticipate having to buy a new battery for her car. Mary thought she would have extra money left over at the end of the month; however, she did not anticipate having to buy a new battery for her car. Semicolon and Joining Word
Another WayConnecting Ideas Through Subordination • Ideas can be connected by subordination. Placing a dependent word such as because, although, if, when, or after in front of an independent clause makes it a dependent or subordinateclause, one that can no longer stand on its own as a sentence. • It must be connected therefore, to another idea that is stated as a complete sentence. • It will then depend on the sentence it is attached to and can no longer be separated from it.
Here are some examples. • Example 1: • Rashida had no time to sit down for breakfast. She picked up a banana and a granola bar and walked out the door. • If the dependent clause acts as an introductory clause, a comma follows it. Becausedependent clause,independent clause Connected • BecauseRashida had no time to sit down for breakfast, she picked up a banana and granola bar and walked out the door.
The Alternate Method. • Cars were backed up for miles on the interstate. A tractor-trailer truck had turned over, blocking two lanes. Independent clause becausedependent clause Connected • Cars were backed up for miles on the interstate because a tractor-trailer truck had turned over, blocking two lanes.
Creating Emphasis through Subordination • Dependent words also act as transitional words, showing the relationship between the ideas. • Using dependent clauses help downplay one idea while emphasizing another. • Usually, the idea expressed in the independent clause is of greater importance, while the idea in the dependent clause is of lesser importance.
EXAMPLES emphasis on the pay • Although the work is dangerous the job pays well. emphasis on the danger • Although the job pays well, the work is dangerous. emphasis on the cheer • A cheer went up from the crowd as the home team scored the winning run. emphasis on the run • The home team scored the winning run as a cheer went up from the crowd.
Final Advice Go forth and remember to coordinate and subordinate! Your sentences