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MKTG201: Buyer Behaviour Lecture Personality PowerPoint Presentation
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MKTG201: Buyer Behaviour Lecture Personality

MKTG201: Buyer Behaviour Lecture Personality

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MKTG201: Buyer Behaviour Lecture Personality

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  1. 4 MKTG201: Buyer Behaviour Lecture Personality

  2. Lecture objectives By the end of the lecture, you should be able to understand: How personality reflects consumers’ inner differences How Freudian, Neo-Freudian and Trait Theories each explain the influence of personality on consumers’ attitudes and behaviour How personality reflects consumers’ responses to product and marketing messages How the products and services that consumers use enhance their self-images How marketers seek to create brand personality-like traits Introduction

  3. What is personality? Definition of personality • Personality has been defined as: • The unique characteristics of a particular person, which influence their behaviour and responses to the social and physical environment. • Some of these characteristics are unique to a specific person and others are shared with others The concept of personality helps us to understand why people behave differently in different situations.

  4. The nature of personality Personality • In the study of personality, three properties are important: Personality is consistent and enduring Personality can change Personality reflects individual differences No two people are exactly alike but many will be similar in terms of single personality characteristic Personality may alter due to major life events and by the gradual maturing process A consistent pattern of behaviour should endure over time

  5. Theories of personality Theories of personality • There are three streams of research and theoretical development that have contributed to our understanding of personality and its application in marketing:

  6. Freudian theory Theories of personality • Freudian theory is built on the premise that unconscious needs are at the heart of human motivation and personality • Freud believed human personality contained three interacting systems: • The id - warehouse of primitive and impulsive drives, which operates on the pleasure principle • The superego - individual expression of moral and ethical codes of conduct • The ego - individual’s conscious control, and attempts to balance the id and the superego

  7. Marketing applications of Freudian theory Applications of Freudian theory • Researchers who apply Freud’s theory to CB stress the idea that human drives are largely unconscious, i.e. they are unaware of their true reasons for buying what they buy • They focus on consumer purchases as a reflection of the consumer’s own personality • Thus, everything we buy is a reflection of our personality

  8. Neo-Freudian personality theory Neo-Freudian theory • Neo-Freudiansbelieve social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality Thus, while some are individualistic, most people are group-oriented Office | Faculty | Department

  9. Trait theory Trait theory • Trait theorists propose that personality is composed of characteristics that describe and differentiate individuals e.g. aggressive, easygoing • Trait theory focuses on quantitative measurements of personality • They describe personality as a combination of particular traits • Trait theorists use personality tests (or inventories) to identify differences in traits • This approach assumes people have many dimensions to their personality Office | Faculty | Depart

  10. Interlude Interlude • Q1. Given that no two individuals have identical personalities, how would you explain the fact that personality is sometimes used in consumer research to identify distinct and sizeable market segments? • Q2. Contrast the main characteristics of the following personality traits (a) Freudian (b) neo-Freudian theory and (C) trait theory. In your answer illustrate how each theory is applied to the understanding of consumer behaviour. Office | Faculty | Depart

  11. Personality and consumer behaviour Personality and consumer behaviour • This section examines specific personality traits that influence behaviours: • Consumer innovativeness, dogmatism and social character • Need for uniqueness • Consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence • Optimum stimulation level • Variety seeking • Cognitive personality factors • Fixated and compulsive consumers • Consumer ethnocentrism Office | Faculty | Department

  12. Consumer innovativeness Personality and consumer behaviour • The success of new products often depends on adoption of the product by innovators • Researchers have developed measurement scales to assess the level of consumer innovativeness • The questionnaires have questions such as: • ‘I am usually among the last of my friends to buy a new product’ • ‘Compared with my friends, I own many of this type of product’ Office | Faculty | Department

  13. Consumer dogmatism Personality and consumer behaviour • The degree of rigidity people display towards unfamiliar information or towards information contrary to their beliefs • Consumers who are low in dogmatism are considered open-minded (and more innovative) • Consumers high in dogmatism (close-minded) are more likely to choose established products • They will also be responsive to ads that contain an authoritative appeal (ads employing experts and celebrities) Office | Faculty | Depart

  14. Consumer social character Personality and consumer behaviour • Social character is a trait that ranges on a continuum from inner-directness to outer-directness • Inner-directed consumers rely on their inner values in evaluating new products and are likely to be innovators • Outer-directed consumers look to others for direction and are followers • These two types of individuals are likely to be attracted to different styles of promotional messages Office | Faculty | Depart

  15. Interlude Interlude • Describe the type of promotional message that would be most suitable for each of the following personality market segments and give an example for each: • Highly dogmatic consumers • Inner-directed consumers Office | Faculty | Depart

  16. Need for uniqueness (NFU) Personality and consumer behaviour • Some people seek to be unique • These people are unconcerned about criticism from others • Researchers have developed an inventory to identify NFU. Sample items from this scale are: • ‘When products or brands become extremely popular, I lose interest in them’ • ‘I avoid brands that are purchased by the average consumer’ • ‘I like to create a style that is all my own’ Office | Faculty | Depart

  17. Consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (CSII) Personality and consumer behaviour • Defined as the need to enhance one’s image in the opinions of others • These consumers have a willingness to conform to the expectations of others and gather information by observing others • Studies have shown that those high in CSII use specific brands to either fit into their social groups or stand out • By identifying CSII, a marketer can create persuasive communications that identify the product or brand’s value in helping the individual fit into his/her social group Office | Faculty | Depart

  18. Break Time

  19. Optimum stimulation level Personality and consumer behaviour • Some people prefer a calm and simple existence, whereas others seek excitement and novel experiences • High optimal stimulation level • Willing to take more risks and try new products, services and retailers • May feel bored by their current lifestyle and seek out exciting services and activities, such as a holiday and entertainment • Low optimal stimulation level • May seek relaxation and stress relief Office | Faculty | Depart

  20. Variety seeking Personality and consumer behaviour • Similar to optimal stimulation level • There are three types of variety seeking: Where they gain information and then contemplate the alternative Switching brands just to experience new products Where the consumer uses a product in a new or novel way Office | Faculty | Depart

  21. Cognitive personality factors Personality and consumer behaviour • Visualisers vs. Verbalisers Office | Faculty | Depart

  22. Need for cognition Personality and consumer behaviour • Defined as the individual’s craving for or enjoyment of thinking Office | Faculty | Depart

  23. Locus of control Personality and consumer behaviour • Degree to which an individual believes they control outcomes They are more likely to engage in complex information search They rely on past experiences to guide them Office | Faculty | Depart

  24. Self-monitoring Personality and consumer behaviour • Some people are more aware of external environmental cues and will adjust their behaviour to be more socially appropriate • Highself monitors are preoccupied with what other people think of their appearance and their actions. • Lowself monitors prefer functionality over style in their product choices Office | Faculty | Depart

  25. Uncertainty orientation (UO) Personality and consumer behaviour • Uncertainty-oriented: those who seek out new information, situations and ideas • Certainty-oriented: those who prefer stability and avoid new information and situations • Typical items used to measure UO are: • ‘I believe it is important for us to challenge our beliefs’ • “If I don’t understand something, I find out about it’. Office | Faculty | Depart

  26. Fixated, compulsive buying and consumption Personality and consumer behaviour Office | Faculty | Depart

  27. Consumer self-concept Consumer self-concept Office | Faculty | Depart

  28. Self and self-images Self-images • Consumers have a number of enduring images of themselves • Multiple selves: People will act differently with different people in different situations Take these situations as an example  The concept of multiple selves is consistent with the idea of use-situation segmentation Office | Faculty | Depart

  29. The make-up of the self image Self-images Office | Faculty | Depart

  30. Expected self-image Self-images • Researchers have identified a fifth type of self image - expected self-image • This is how consumers expect to see themselves in the future • Useful in developing and promoting products Office | Faculty | Depart

  31. Altering the self Self-images • Consumers wish to change or ‘improve’ themselves • Common examples are cosmetics, piercings, hair colouring or undergoing cosmetic surgery Office | Faculty | Depart

  32. Brand personality Brand pesonalty • Researchers have found inanimate objects such as brands can be associated with human characteristics • Consumers tend to ascribe ‘personality-like’ traits to different brands • The traits of the people associated with the brand are transferred to the brand e.g. Harley Davidson • Brand personality is also inferred by advertising style, price, brand name and logo • Research has found that a strong positive brand personality leads to more favourable attitudes towards the brand, brand preference, high purchase intentions and brand loyalty Office | Faculty | Depart

  33. Summary Summary • Definition of personality • Exploration of Freudian, Neo-Freudian and trait theories • How personality reflects consumers’ responses to product and marketing messages • How products and services enhance self-image • How marketers create brand personalities Office | Faculty | Depart