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Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support

Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support

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Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support

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  1. Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut November 25, 2008 www.pbis.org www.cber.org www.swis.org George.sugai@uconn.edu

  2. PURPOSE Provide overview of defining features of function-based approach to addressing behavior. • Prerequisites review • FBA basics • BIP basics

  3. Function-based support is all about… Re-design & improvement of learning & teaching environments • Attention to environment & function • Not re-design of individuals • Change in behavior of plan implementers

  4. Outcomes (“Answers”) • Supporting context • Effective SWPBS • Features & requirements of function-based approach to behavior support • Process • Behavioral description of “function” • Get or escape/avoid • Steps in function-based approach to behavior intervention planning • Behaviorally competent team

  5. Behavior Support Elements *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysis *Contextual fit *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions Problem Behavior Functional Assessment *Implementation support *Data plan • Team-based • Behavior competence Intervention & Support Plan *Continuous improvement *Sustainability plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle

  6. 12/32 Basics Review

  7. PBIS Logic! Successful individual student support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, integrated, durable, & scalable for all students (Zins & Ponti, 1990)

  8. Evaluation Criteria

  9. VIOLENCE PREVENTION • Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) • White House Conference on School Violence (2006) • Positive, predictable school-wide climate • High rates of academic & social success • Formal social skills instruction • Positive active supervision & reinforcement • Positive adult role models • Multi-component, multi-year school-family-community effort

  10. Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  11. 7 SWPBS Practices School-wide Classroom • Smallest # • Evidence-based • Biggest, durable effect Family Non-classroom Student

  12. School-wide • Leadership team • Behavior purpose statement • Set of positive expectations & behaviors • Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior • Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior • Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations • Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation

  13. Non-classroom • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged • Active supervision by all staff • Scan, move, interact • Precorrections & reminders • Positive reinforcement

  14. Franzen, K., & Kamps, D. (2008).

  15. Classroom • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction • Active supervision • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors • Effective academic instruction & curriculum

  16. Allday & Pakurar (2007)

  17. Family • Continuum of positive behavior support for all families • Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgements • Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partner • Access to system of integrated school & community resources

  18. Individual Student • Behavioral competence at school & district levels • Function-based behavior support planning • Team- & data-based decision making • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations

  19. Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT FEW ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% SOME Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ALL ~80% of Students

  20. July 2, 2008 ODR rates vary by level

  21. July 2, 2008

  22. ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS • TERTIARY PREVENTION • Function-based support • Wraparound • Person-centered planning • TERTIARY PREVENTION ~5% ~15% • SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/out • Targeted social skills instruction • Peer-based supports • Social skills club • SECONDARY PREVENTION • PRIMARY PREVENTION • Teach SW expectations • Proactive SW discipline • Positive reinforcement • Effective instruction • Parent engagement • PRIMARY PREVENTION ~80% of Students

  23. ESTABLISHING A CONTINUUM of SWPBS • TERTIARY PREVENTION • Function-based support • Wraparound/PCP • Specialized individualised supports • Practice Selection • Evidence-based • Measurable outcome aligned with need & student • Rules for data-based decisions • Integrated with related practices based on outcomes, need, student • Implementation fidelity • Continuous monitoring Audit Identify existing practices by tier Specify outcome for each effort Evaluate implementation accuracy & outcome effectiveness Eliminate/integrate based on outcomes Establish decision rules (RtI) ~5% ~15% • SECONDARY PREVENTION • Check in/out • Targeted social skills instruction • Peer-based supports • Social skills club • PRIMARY PREVENTION • Teach & encourage positive SW expectations • Proactive SW discipline • Effective instruction • Parent engagement ~80% of Students

  24. RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Few Some All Dec 7, 2007

  25. PBS Systems Implementation Logic Visibility Funding Political Support Leadership Team Active & Integrated Coordination Training Evaluation Coaching Local School Teams/Demonstrations

  26. Response to Intervention RtI

  27. Class B Results Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior School Days

  28. Check In/Out Pt Card Name________________ Date ________ Goal _____ Pts Possible _____ Pts Received_____ % of Pts _____ Goal Met? Y N Rating Scale 2 = Great 1 = Ok 0 = Goal Not Met

  29. Class B Results + Composite Peers Peer Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior Peer Peer School Days

  30. Study 2 Results Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior School Days

  31. Study 2 Results + Composite Peer Peer Percent of Intervals Engaged in Problem Behavior Peer Peer Peer School Days

  32. www.pbis.org Horner, R., & Sugai, G. (2008). Is school-wide positive behavior support an evidence-based practice? OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support. http://www.pbis.org/files/101007evidencebase4pbs.pdf.

  33. 12/32 FBA Basics

  34. Behavior Support Elements *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysis *Contextual fit *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions Problem Behavior Functional Assessment *Implementation support *Data plan • Team-based • Behavior competence Intervention & Support Plan *Continuous improvement *Sustainability plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle

  35. What is Function Based Support? • Foundations in behavioral theory, applied behavior analysis, & positive behavior support • Attention to environmental context • Emphasis on function of behavior • Focus on teaching effective, efficient, & relevant behaviors • Attention to behavior of implementers

  36. Non-examples of Function-Based approach “Function” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence • “Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.” • “Phloem, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.” • “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”

  37. Functional approach logic • Behaviors are maintained by consequence events (function) • Positive or negative reinforcement • Behaviors are occasioned by antecedent events • Relate antecedent to emission of behavior & likelihood of consequence event • Changing behaviors requires consideration of maintaining consequences

  38. Only 2 Basic Functions Pos Reinf Neg Reinf Existing aversive condition identified

  39. Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai, 2005

  40. Behaviorism SWPBS Conceptual Foundations Laws of Behavior ABA Applied Behavioral Technology PBS Social Validity SWPBS All Students

  41. What is FBA? A systematic process for developing statements about factors that • contribute to occurrence & maintenance of problem behavior, & • more importantly, serve as basis for developing proactive & comprehensive behavior support plans.

  42. When has FBA been done? • Clear & measurable definition of problem behaviors. • Complete testable hypothesis or summary statement is provided. • Statement of function (purpose) of behavior 3. Data (direct observation) to confirm testable hypothesis. • Behavior intervention plan based on testable hypothesis • Contextually appropriate supports for accurate implementation

  43. Definition of Problem Behavior or Class Testable Hypothesis FBA Elements Contextually Appropriate Support Function Statement Behavior Intervention Plan Supporting Data Competing Path Analysis

  44. Defining behavior Must result in clear, measurable, & objective descriptions of individual, groups, or sequences of related behaviors • Any observable or measurable action or act. • Observable beginning & end • Has measurable dimension(s) • Frequency, duration, latency, force, topography, locus

  45. Consider behavior dimensions: • Topography/shape • Frequency • Duration • Latency, • Intensity or force • Locus

  46. Non- v. Observable (-)hyperactivity (+) initiates 5 different tasks within 2 minutes (+) leaves room at least 3 times during a 30 minute lesson (+)….

  47. Which is described in observable terms? Hits with his fist OR Aggressive

  48. Which is described in observable terms? Hits with his fist OR Aggressive