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Lecture Notes #2

ITEC0724 Modern Related Technology on Mobile D. : Cloud Deployment Model + Migration and Mobile Cloud Computing. Lecture Notes #2. Lecture Outline. Cloud deployment models Business case Moving applications to the cloud Application attributes Cloud service attributes System abstraction

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Lecture Notes #2

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  1. ITEC0724 Modern Related Technology on Mobile D. : Cloud Deployment Model + Migrationand Mobile Cloud Computing Lecture Notes #2

  2. Lecture Outline • Cloud deployment models • Business case • Moving applications to the cloud • Application attributes • Cloud service attributes • System abstraction • Cloud bursting • Mobile market • Adopting mobile cloud applications

  3. Cloud Deployment Models (NIST) • Public clouds • Private clouds • Hybrid clouds The models by the US National institute of standards and technology (NIST)

  4. Public Clouds • Infrastructure is for public use • Own by organization selling cloud services • Potential advantage • No risk in infrastructure • Potential disadvantage • Lack of security

  5. Key public cloud providers • Google • Google Docs, Google App Engine (GAE) • EMC Corporation • Parent company of VMWare, one of the leading companies in virtualization • Microsoft Azure Platform • Amazon Web Services (EC2 and S3) • (

  6. Private Clouds • Basically, it’s a cloud infrastructure set up, managed, and upgraded by an organization or community for their own use (private use) • Potential advantage • Full control of all resources and technologies such as security • Potential disadvantage • Infrastructure cost

  7. Technology for Private Clouds • Commercial vendors are entering in this domain quite fast • Vmware • Open Source providers are also there • Eucalyptus, Ubuntu

  8. Hybrid Clouds • Combine multiple clouds (private and public) • Each cloud retains its unique characteristics, but bound together as a unit • Potential advantage • Security and Infrastructure cost • Potential disadvantage • Policies compliance???, Synchronization???

  9. Other types of clouds • Virtual private clouds (VPC) • Run on top of public cloud • Leverage VPN technology to customize network topology and security setting • Advantage – infrastructure and security • Example, Amazon Web Services

  10. Other types of clouds (2) • Community clouds • Serve a common function or purpose of multiple units • Share common concerns such as mission, policies, security and regulatory compliances • Units can be within one organization or multiple organizations • Advantage • Cost – shared infrastructure cost • Security – higher level of security and privacy

  11. Business cases • Dimensions to consider to save cost • Ongoing operational cost reduction • The value of preserving capital • The value of upsizing on demand • The value of downsizing on demand • The value of agility • The value of reuse • The value of coolness

  12. Operational Cost Reduction

  13. Upsize and downsize on demand

  14. Case Study on Oil & Gas Industry • The migration use-case of an IT System • From a company’s in-house data center • To Amazon EC2 System Deployed in the Cloud System Overview

  15. Infrastructure costs • Company C paid £104,000 to Company B for the system in 2005, £19,200 of which was for the system’s infrastructure. • In addition, C paid B £43,000 per year for system support and maintenance, £3600 of which is for the running costs of the system infrastructure. • Over a 5 year period, the total cost of the system infrastructure is therefore: £19,200 + (5 x £3,600) = £37,200

  16. Price Comparision • Amazon EC2 provides an option of using either small or large server instances depending on the amount of CPU power and RAM required. • In Cloud, 37% cheaper compared to 1 small and 1 large server instance

  17. Support and Maintenance • In 2005, 218 Support calls have been made regarding the operation of the system. • The majority were about software problems. • 45 calls were related to the system’s infrastructure. • 38 calls – backup problems • 5 calls – network problems • 2 calls – power outages at B • In cloud – 21% eliminated

  18. Stakeholders’ Impact Analysis • Stakeholders’ impact analysis is a method of identifying potential sources of benefits and risks from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders.

  19. The steps to do business case • Understanding the existing issues • Define value points • Model “as is” • Model “to be” • Assign costs • Define hard benefits and soft benefits • Define risks • Create business case (save cost?)

  20. Moving applications to the cloud • Deploy Application to the cloud? • Entirely or Part of the application is on the local system and another part is in the cloud • Migration involves • Functionality Mapping - Identification of potential benefits associated with migration • Analysis of critical features of application • Analysis of features supported by cloud provider • Nature of target cloud platform • Evaluation of supported tools and technologies

  21. Application attributes • Attributes to analyze for porting applications to the cloud • Application • Availability • Data management • Cost • Maintenance • Security • Scalability • Interfaces

  22. Application Attributes (2) • Quality attributes associated with application • Abstraction, configuration, interoperability, modularity, reusability, language support, monitoring support, staffing requirements, tool support. • Quality attributes associated with availability • Fault management, Geographic location, resource pooling, resource access, reliability, uptime. • Quality attributes associated with scalability • Caching, licensing, lifecycle management, load balancing, replication, resource provisioning • Quality attributes associated with cost • Development cost, resource cost, staging cost.

  23. Application Attributes (3) • Quality attributes associated with data management • Data exchange, indexing, online/offline access, portability, query, state, store type, data structures, transactions. • Quality attributes associated with security • Access, auditing, authentication, cryptography, identity, regulations, remote access, security rules, trust relationships. • Quality attributes associated with maintenance • APIs, Configurations, Deployment. • Quality attributes associated with user interface • Ease of use, interface features, user interaction.

  24. Cloud Service Attributes • Features associated with application • Accounting schemes, operating system support, database support, resource pooling mechanisms, site location, redundancy and replication, relation management, virtual machine types, APIs. • Platform features • Application support, deployment environments, Internationalization (languages and locale), programming langue support, testing, API and command line interfaces.

  25. Cloud Service Attributes (2) • Infrastructure features • Availability, network support, load balancing, reliability, replication, database support.

  26. Which cloud types to select?

  27. System Abstraction • Target should be able to provide abstraction of all required physical resources through virtualization. • Example, Medical imaging system

  28. Cloud Bursting • Cloud should be able to serve access capacity when required. • Example, Reservation system

  29. Following types of application are more suitable for cloud • Not mission critical. • Not handling core business operations. • Not dealing with sensitive data. • Can tolerate high network latencies and work on low network bandwidth. • Following industry standards. E.g. using standardized tools for object to relational mappings. • Do not require detailed customization for each tenant. • Organization involved in porting have full knowledge of application and its associated domain.

  30. Mobile Cloud Computing Mobile Cloud Computing Cloud Computing - Need ubiquitous Devices Mobile • Need Ubiquitous Apps • >Performance + Storage

  31. Mobile Market

  32. Number of Subscribers

  33. Challenges in Mobile • Resources • Battery life • Storage • Bandwidth • Communication • Security • mobility

  34. Adopting Mobile Cloud Applications • Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) • Definition • “Mobile Cloud Computing at its simplest, refers to an infrastructure where both the data storage and the data processing happen outside of the mobile device. Mobile cloud applications move the computing power and data storage away from mobile phones and into the cloud, bringing applications and mobile computing to not just smartphone users but a much broader range of mobile subscribers”. (by the Mobile Cloud Computing Forum) • Briefly, MCC is a model where processing is done in the cloud, data is stored in the cloud, mobiles device serves as a presentation platform or a display

  35. MCC Architecture

  36. Advantages of MCC • Advantage of cloud to mobile computing • Thinner devices -> less processing, consume less power, and have better battery life • Improving data storage capacity and processing power • Avoidance of vendor lock-in. • Inherits some advantages of clouds • Dynamic resource provisioning, Scalability, Reliability and Multi-tenancy

  37. What to be when cloud come! • Less processing power, memory and storage but needs to be aware of bandwidth and display resolutions. • Featured phones with light weight operating systems. • Smart phones with sophisticated operating systems. e.g., iOS, Android, Windows Mobile, Symbian.

  38. Android Market

  39. Apple iCloud iCloud

  40. iCloud Application iBook Calendar, Mail and Contacts Documents in the Cloud Apps iCloud Find My Friends and Find My iPhone iTunes in the Cloud Photo Stream Backup

  41. iPhone Application Hosting by Amazon Picture from Alexandra Institute

  42. iAWS Manager Picture from Alexandra Institute

  43. Summary • Application requirements and cloud features should be carefully analyzed while migrating applications on cloud. • Quality attributes support by cloud provider plays a vital role in successful migrations. • Business dimension of application migration is as important to consider as technical aspects. • Mobile leverage cloud in terms of performance, storage and cloud’s features

  44. References • Chapter 1, 14 of Course Book: Cloud Computing Bible, 2011, Wiley Pub. Inc. • Cloud Migration: A Case Study of Migrating an Enterprise IT System to IaaS, Khajeh-Hosseini, A., Greenwood, D., Sommerville, I., 2009 • Chapter 4-7, 10. 11, 20 of Cloud Computing and SOA Convergence in your Enterprise, Linthicum, D., S. • A Survey of Mobile Cloud Computing: Architecture, Applications, and Approaches

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