Download
neuroscience of behavior n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Neuroscience of Behavior PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Neuroscience of Behavior

Neuroscience of Behavior

171 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Neuroscience of Behavior

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Neuroscience of Behavior Chapter Two

  2. Meet the Neuron

  3. Neural Communications • Axon • Dendrites • Myelin Sheath • Action Potentials • Excitatory/Inhibitory • All-or-none • Synapse • Neurotransmitters (NT)

  4. Neurotransmitters • Dopamine • Serotonin • Norepinephrine • Gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) • Acetylcholine (ACh) • Endorphins (endogenous morphine) • Glutamate

  5. Drugs and Neurotransmission • Agonists • Mimic/block reuptake • Antagonists • Block receptors/inhibit release

  6. How do drugs work? • Mimic NT • Block NT • Slow Reuptake

  7. The Nervous System

  8. Central Nervous System • The Brain & The Spinal Cord • Measuring the Brain • Electroencephalogram (EEG) • Neuroimaging • Computed Tomography (CT) • Uses x-ray • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) • Measures brain’s absorption of glucose • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) • Uses a strong magnet • Functional MRI

  9. The Lower Brain • Brainstem • Spine runs into the Medulla • Heartbeat & breathing • Level at which brain cross-lateralizes • Reticular Formation • Connects the spine & thalamus • Arousal & relay station

  10. The Midbrain • Thalamus • The brains main relay station • Except for smell • Cerebellum: “Little Brain” • Implicated in nonverbal learning & memory • Coordinates voluntary movement

  11. The Limbic System • Uses Hormones rather than NT’s • Doughnut shaped around mid-brain • Amygdala • Aggression & fear • Hypothalamus: “below thalamus” • Homeostatic processes and drives • “Reward” or “Pleasure” centers • Olds & Milner (1958) • Pituitary Gland: “The Master Gland”

  12. The Cerebral Cortex • Surface of the Brain • 80% of the brain’s weight • Glial Cells • Connect and swap info b/t cortex cells • Four Lobes • Frontal • Speaking, planned behavior, judgment • Parietal • senses • Occipital • Visual processing • Temporal • Auditory processing

  13. Functions of Cortex • Motor Cortex • Posterior portion of central frontal lobe • Sensory Cortex • Anterior portion of central frontal lobe • Homunculi • Association Areas • Basically the rest of human cortex • Frontal lobe damage can cause planning & personality changes • Phineas Gage

  14. The Brain & Language • Broca’s Area • Left frontal lobe • Controls speech production • Wernicke’s Area • Left temporal lobe • Language comprehension & expression • Geschwind (1979) • Read aloud -> visual area -> angular gyrus -> Wernicke-> Broca -> motor cortex

  15. Brain Reorganization • Plasticity • Brain Cell Regeneration • Can you remove half the brain and still function?

  16. Split Brain • Corpus Callosum • Epilepsy • Split Brain (Gazzaniga, 1967) • Cross-Lateralization • Right/Left Hemisphere • Handedness • Hereditary? • Humans vs. other animals