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Martin Luther King, Jr., speaking about a voter registration drive. Photograph (June 17, 1966). PowerPoint Presentation
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Martin Luther King, Jr., speaking about a voter registration drive. Photograph (June 17, 1966).

Martin Luther King, Jr., speaking about a voter registration drive. Photograph (June 17, 1966).

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Martin Luther King, Jr., speaking about a voter registration drive. Photograph (June 17, 1966).

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  1. The Civil Rights Era, 1954–1975 The civil rights movement develops and brings about changes in American society. Martin Luther King, Jr., speaking about a voter registration drive. Photograph (June 17, 1966). NEXT

  2. The Civil Rights Era, 1954–1975 SECTION 1 Origins of the Civil Rights Movement SECTION 2 Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights SECTION 3 The Equal Rights Struggle Expands NEXT

  3. Section 1 Origins of the Civil Rights Movement Changes after World War II help African Americans make progress in their struggle for equality. NEXT

  4. SECTION 1 Origins of the Civil Rights Movement Postwar Changes Strengthen Protests Chart • More Americans see racism as evil, causing Hitler’s rise, Holocaust • After fighting for freedom, blacks want share of it in the U.S. • Blacks make more money, move into cities for work NEXT

  5. SECTION 1 Brown Overturns Plessy • Plessy v. Ferguson—“separate but equal” doctrine established (1896) • NAACP counsel Thurgood Marshall challenges segregation laws • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) rules that: - segregation has no place in public education Map • Brown II gives segregated schools more time to desegregate • Most white-controlled schools resist segregation NEXT

  6. SECTION 1 Montgomery Bus Boycott • Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to follow segregation rules on bus Image • Montgomery busboycott—blacks protest Parks’s arrest, trial by: - refusing to ride the buses in Montgomery, Alabama • Baptist minister Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.,encourages boycott • 13-month boycott, leaders endure death threats, bombings, jailings • Nonviolent boycott gains national media attention Continued . . . NEXT

  7. SECTION 1 continuedMontgomery Bus Boycott • Supreme Court rules Montgomery bus segregation law unconstitutional • Boycott has several important results: - ends segregation on Montgomery buses - leads to founding of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) - makes Dr. King a very prominent civil rights leader NEXT

  8. SECTION 1 Massive Resistance • More than 80 percent of Southern whites oppose school desegregation • Segregationists fight African Americans, civil rights organizations • Ku Klux Klan use violence to threaten blacks pursuing civil rights Image • White Citizens Councils organize to prevent desegregation, effective • White opposition to desegregation known as massive resistance NEXT

  9. SECTION 1 Showdown in Little Rock • Little Rock school board makes plans to integrate Central High School •Segregationists, Arkansas governor Orval Faubus blocks integration • 8 of 9 black students are turned away from school by National Guard • 9th student, Elizabeth Eckford, tries to enter despite hostile mob Image • Eckford is escorted away, Faubus refuses integration for 3 weeks • Escorted by U.S. military, black students enter Central High School NEXT

  10. SECTION 1 Sit-Ins Energize the Movement • 4 black college students do sit-in to desegregate lunch counter •Sit-in—protest, people sit, refuse to move until demands are met • Students sit at counter for 45 minutes, come back with more protesters • Segregationists abuse protestors, some protestors jailed, replaced Image • Sit-ins effective, force many lunch counters to serve African Americans • Sit-ins bring about Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) NEXT

  11. Section 2 Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights The civil rights movement leads to the end of legal segregation. NEXT

  12. SECTION 2 Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights Kennedy and Civil Rights • Senator John F. Kennedy Democratic candidate for president (1960) • Vice-president Richard Nixon Republican candidate • Kennedy helps arrange release of Martin Luther King, Jr., from jail • Gains African-American support • Kennedy wins election, faces Congress reluctant to act on civil rights Continued . . . NEXT

  13. SECTION 2 continued Kennedy and Civil Rights • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) plans Freedom Ridesto: - desegregate interstate buses • Segregationists attack riders, federal marshals protect riders Image • U.S. government issues order integrating interstate bus facilities NEXT

  14. SECTION 2 Protests in Birmingham • African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama, want to: - integrate public facilities - gain better job, housing opportunities • Start nonviolent protest, Dr. King joins protestors, is arrested • Police use dogs, firehoses on marchers, shown on TV, public horrified Image • Birmingham white leaders agree to: - desegregate lunch counters - remove segregation signs - employ more African Americans NEXT

  15. SECTION 2 The March on Washington • March onWashington—demonstration, 250,000 march to Lincoln Memorial • Takes place on August 28, 1963; unites civil rights groups • Martin Luther King delivers “I Have a Dream” speech Image • President Kennedy promises support NEXT

  16. SECTION 2 New Civil Rights Laws • President Kennedy is assassinated on November 22, 1963 • U.S. mourns slain leader, factories, businesses close • Vice-president Lyndon Johnson becomes president • Acts quickly on civil rights, pushes the Civil Rights Act of 1964: - bans segregation in public places - creates commission to stop job discrimination Chart NEXT

  17. SECTION 2 Fighting for Voting Rights • Civil Rights Act of 1964 bars different black, white voting standards • 24th Amendment bans poll tax, still difficult for blacks in South vote • FreedomSummer—voter registration drive for Southern blacks • Martin Luther King, Jr., SCLC have voter registration protest march • State troopers attack marchers • President Johnson send U.S. troops to protect marchers Continued . . . NEXT

  18. SECTION 2 continuedFighting for Voting Rights • President Johnson signs Voting Rights Act into law (1965): - bans literacy test, laws stopping blacks from registering to vote - sends federal officials to register voters • Percentage of blacks registered to vote in Selma increases sharply Map NEXT

  19. SECTION 2 Johnson and the Great Society • President Johnson proposes programs called Great Society, provides: - programs to help disenfranchised, poor, elderly, women - laws to promote education, end discrimination, protect environment Image • Many programs, like Medicare, Medicaid, still exist today • Elementary and Secondary School Act provides U.S. funds for education • Laws passed to protect environment, endangered species, wilderness NEXT

  20. SECTION 2 Divisions in the Civil Rights Movement • Civil rights groups disagree, some are nonviolent, others aggressive • King, SCLC protest discrimination in Chicago, have little effect • Frustration about lack of opportunities, political power leads to riots • Martin Luther King, Jr., assassinated (April 4, 1968) • Nation mourns, African Americans riot across the U.S. Continued . . . NEXT

  21. SECTION 2 continued Divisions in the Civil Rights Movement • Some blacks reject nonviolence, white cooperation • SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael fights racism, all-black organization • Nation of Islam urges blacks to separate from whites • Popular member Malcolm X rejects separatist ideas by mid-1960s Image • Assassinated by Nation of Islam in 1965 NEXT

  22. Section 3 The Equal Rights Struggle Expands The African-American struggle for equality inspires other groups to fight for equality. NEXT

  23. SECTION 3 The Equal Rights Struggle Expands Mexican Americans Organize • César Chávezstarts farm workers union, gains higher wages, benefits Image • Mexican Americans form La Raza Unida (1970) works to: - get better jobs, pay, education, housing for Mexican Americans - elect Mexican Americans to public office • Mexican American students organize, demand reforms in school system • Stage walkout, arrested, schools meet protestors, make reforms NEXT

  24. SECTION 3 Hispanic Diversity • Hispanics trace roots to Spanish-speaking Latin American countries • Refer to themselves as Latinos • Come from different countries, cultures, often have little in common • Differences make it difficult for Hispanic Americans to unify politically NEXT

  25. SECTION 3 Native Americans Unite • “Termination policy” leads to decline of Native American cultures • National Congress of American Indians(NCAI) leads protests of policy • U.S. government changes policy, inspires Native Americans, gain rights • In Declaration of Indian Purpose (1961) Native Americans demand: - right to choose own way of life - responsibility of preserving precious heritage Continued . . . NEXT

  26. SECTION 3 continuedNative Americans Unite • American Indian Movement (AIM) demands sovereign rights • Indian Self-Determination Act of 1975, tribal governments get: - more control over social programs, law enforcement, education • Native Americans win back some of their lands NEXT

  27. SECTION 3 The Women’s Movement • 1960s, women face discrimination in workplace, limited legal rights • Betty Friedan writes book about problems women face in society • National Organization for Women (NOW), good jobs, equal pay for women • Congress passes Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) in 1972 Continued . . . NEXT

  28. SECTION 3 continued The Women’s Movement • Supporters say ERA will: - protect women against discrimination - help women achieve equality with men • States do not ratify ERA Map • Civil Rights Act (1964), Higher Education Act (1972): - outlaw discrimination against women NEXT

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