Schoolwide Positive Behaviour SupportLeadership Team TrainingDay 1 Louise O’Kelly Positive Behaviour Support Consultant WMR 2012 schools February 2012
Today... Consider: • The rationale for implementing SWPBS • The logic, systems and practices of the process • What building a continuum of support entails. • The role of data in our work.
Tomorrow… • Develop an action plan for our school • Establish meeting processes and timetable.
Getting there….. • Implementation practices, structures, & processes • Outcomes & examples • Brief activities
“Map” • 2+ years of team training • Annual “refresher” events • Coaching support @ school & regional levels • Regular self-assessment & evaluation data • State/regional coordination
Tasmanian Context “Reactive models around explicit deficit centred behaviour management programs are the most common approaches to handling behaviour issues. Such deficit models of behaviour management do not appear to be working.” (Atelier Learning Solutions, 2004) Traditional discipline approaches tend to produce outcomes for students which are opposite to those articulated in the our curriculum.
Australia Behaviour problems in schools are; ‘ongoing, growing and of national concern’ (p.3) MCEETYA Student Behaviour Management Project (2002)
Queensland Behaviour and behaviour management issues in schools and the development, approval, application and review of school-based policies on behaviour management, including school disciplinary absences, remain contentious and the subject of ongoing public and political debate. The historical connotation of ‘behaviour management’ is that of negative behaviour and its amelioration” (p.2). Queensland Government MACER Report (2005)
Traditional 9 • Traditional, and more reactionary, school discipline procedures (e.g., those that rely on punishment and exclusion) are generally ineffective in either reducing challenging behaviours or increasing desired behaviour (e.g., Mogan-D’Atrio, Northrup, LaFleur and Spera, 1996).
Features of schools with reduced levels of violence in schools: 11 • explicit school rules that are taught. • an equitable school discipline policy. • highly structured teaching programs • with positive rewards, and • ability appropriate curriculum. • staff who actively intervene to prevent or stop bullying. • high proportion of experienced teaching staff. • staff who respond rapidly and effectively to student complaints of provocation • or harassment, and • working peer-mediation programs. (NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, 2005)
Teacher Well-Being The use of ineffective and inappropriate interventions has a detrimental effect on the well-being of teachers. Finding workable solutions is of benefit to all – students, teachers and parents. (Murik, Shaddock and Spinks, 2005) 12
Issues for Teachers Some of the recommended strategies for responding to difficult behaviour were considered too Individualised Time consuming Resource intensive (Maag, 2001) 13
Pre service issues 14 • 65% beginning teachers DON’T feel that their pre-service education prepared them for dealing with the needs of: • Students with disabilities • Students with low socio-economic status • Students from non English speaking backgrounds
In service issues • Supporting students with additional needs • IT • Behaviour and discipline OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey; 2009 ‘Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments’
Community perceptions, media reporting & government responses ‘A battle is brewing to contain a 26 per cent spike in students being suspended from Queensland schools over the past three years. The alarming wave of aggressive and disrespectful behaviour from southeast and north Queensland students comes as the Government pours another $28.6 million into “positive behaviour strategies” this financial year.’ (p.1) Brisbane Courier Mail 2008
Australian Policy Context “implement policies, programmes and processes to nurture a safe and supportive school” “proactive and oriented towards prevention and intervention” “regularly monitor and evaluate their policies and programmes so that evidence based practice supports decisions and improvement” “recognise the critical importance of pre service and ongoing professional development in creating a safe and supportive school environment” (p.8-9) National Safe Schools Framework (2003)
Initiatives and Reviews:Where we were... • A consistency of response in relation to the ineffectiveness of current practice in improving student outcomes • A lack of confidence or ‘efficacy’ on the part of principals and teachers to effectively teach students with difficult behaviour, manifested in repeated requests for professional learning and support • An overuse of sanctions and consequence based approaches reflecting a tendency to attribute cause for misbehaviour primarily to student factors • A concern about the lack of any systematic and systemic approach to student behaviour that aligned with Departmental values and with teaching and learning practices.
2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behaviour • Get Tough (practices) • Train-&-Hope (systems)
Get Tough • Clamp down • Review rules (again and again) • Increase continuum and consistency of consequences Sugai, 2002
Get Tougher • Zero tolerance policies • Increased suspension & exclusion • Off site educational placements Sugai, 2002
“Get Tough” Problems • Foster environments of control • Triggers & reinforces non-acceptable behaviour • Compromises the student-teacher relationship • Weakens relationship between academic & social behaviour learning Sugai, 2002
Focus on Behaviour Errors • Challenging behaviour gets worse • Classes get disrupted • Children who challenge start hanging out together • Adults feel powerless
Science of behaviour has taught us that students…. • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback….consider function
Getting Tough Is Enough Belief that disruptive behaviour should not be tolerated because it inhibits the education of other students and that raising the intensity of punishment is the most effective way to curtail behaviour. Reprimands, detention, suspension, expulsion and loss of privileges are most common responses to disruptive behaviour.
These are among the least effective strategies for reducing unwanted behaviour. A strong, consistent policy of punishment and exclusion for problem behaviours – without a balanced system of teaching and rewarding expected behaviours is associated with increases in • aggression, • vandalism, • truancy and, • dropouts
Focusing On The Difficult Few Assuming that if the behaviour of the ‘difficult few’ could be contained (or relocated!) the school climate would be acceptable. One of the three levels of effective disciplinary structure is a system for addressing a small number of students with chronic and intense disruptive behaviour. It is not an error to focus on these students, but it is a mistake to focus on these students without first implementing preventions and at risk practices. Schoolwide discipline is not achieved one student at a time.
Procedures must be in place to build schoolwide social competence. Too often efforts to remove or contain the small number of the most disruptive students simply results in identification of an ever-increasing number of these students.
Looking For The Quick Fix Building effective schoolwide discipline takes time. A reasonable period to design and establish the three major disciplinary systems is 3 to 5 years. A dangerous trap is to embark on a schoolwide disciplinary effort with the assumption that a program can be identified, adopted and implemented within a few months. Schools with effective disciplinary systems typically build them over time.
Finding One Powerful Trick Schoolwide discipline is not achieved through a single strategy. Deceptive to think that a single strategy or procedure exists to meet all the needs of a school. Effective schoolwide discipline involves the development of at least three distinct systems. Effective responses to schoolwide discipline problems will involve the design of an action plan that builds and integrates multiple components of a schoolwide disciplinary structure.
Believing Someone Else Has The Solution School teams will need to develop and adapt disciplinary systems that meet the unique features of each school. There is no one unified system of discipline that has or is likely to emerge as the miracle solution for schools. School principals committed to building effective disciplinary systems need to lead the integration and ownership of those elements that establish the social culture of a school.
Believing That More Is Better A common trap is to add more and more reform initiatives to an already overburdened staff. It is less difficult to identify a new idea that needs implementation than to identify the existing activities that will be terminated to recover resources needed for the new initiative. As the intensity and diversity of disciplinary problems in schools increase, educators become vulnerable to the lure of the newest fad. Innovation is added with no considerationbeyond surface level appeal (packaging, ease of use, cost).
Activity • Consider your school community and discuss to what extent do all or any of these beliefs have some influence. • Report one question or concern from your team. 10 mins.
Schoolwide Approach “ ...although long proposed, until recent years schools have struggled to agree on a common and shared approach to problem behaviour, and even more difficult has been to integrate strategies to improve behaviour with teaching and learning in the context of a schoolwide, positive plan” Cook & Radler (2006)
...a typical school can use up to fourteen different responses to problem behaviour at any one time, and that strategies and responses are most often implemented inconsistently or imprecisely. Gottfredson (2000)
Implications for Professional Development • Recognise that change is a gradual and difficult process for teachers. • Ensure that teachers receive regular feedback on student learning progress. • Provide continued follow up support.
Why SWPBS? 43 School friendly Practical Systematic Research informed Ongoing development Values alignment Incorporated community Inclusive
School Leadership Teams SWPBS District Coaches Central/regional coordination and training
Schools Are Important And Good • Schools can provide: • Regular, predictable, positive learning and teaching environments • Positive adult and peer models • Regular positive reinforcement • Academic and social behaviour development and success
Positive Behaviour Support is “a broad range of systemic & individualised strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes while preventing problem behaviour with all students.” (Sugai & Horner, 2001;2002)
Positive Behaviour Support • Apply three tiered prevention logic • Primary for all • Secondary for some • Tertiary for a few
Tertiary Prevention: Specialised Individualised Systems for Students at Whose Behaviour Places Them at High-Risk of Disconnecting From School CONTINUUM OF SCHOOLWIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR SUPPORT ~5% ~15% Secondary Prevention: Specialised Group Systems for Students Whose Behaviour Places Them At-Risk of Disconnecting From School Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students
SWPBS Logic! Successful individual student behaviour support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
Academic and behaviour outcomes that are endorsed and emphasised by students, families and educators Social Competence & Academic Achievement Positive Behaviour Support OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behaviour DATA SYSTEMS • Supports that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices of SWPBS • Information that is used to identify status, need for change, and effects of interventions PRACTICES • Interventions and strategies that are research validated Supporting Student Behaviour