g, Jobs, and Life: Honoring Arthur R. Jensen Linda S. Gottfredson University of Delaware December 7, 2002 International Society for Intelligence Research, Nashville, TN
Power of g As a Concept • Frees intelligence from IQ tests • Reveals that tests differ in g loading • Life tasks also differ in g loading Life is a Long Mental Test Battery
How Is Life Like and Unlike a Standardized Test Battery? • What are the g loadings of life’s many “subtests”? • Do we take the same “subtests” in life? • How does our g level affect which “subtests” we take? • How standardized are life’s “subtests”? • Do weakly g-loaded life tasks cumulate to produce highly g-loaded life “tests”? • What (re)shapes the “test battery” that each generation takes?
Standardized academic achievement .8 Job performance—complex jobs Years of education .6 Occupational level Job performance—middle-level jobs .4-.5 Income .3-.4 Delinquency -.25 Job performance—simple jobs .2 1. How g Loaded Are Different Arenas of Life? r g
1. How g Loaded Are the Different Arenas of Life?—cont. “strong” > 4.0 “mod strong” > 2.0
2. How Different Are the Test Batteries We Take? criterion-referenced? norm-referenced?
4. How Standardized are Life’s Tests? • Content • Conditions of administration • Scoring procedures • Norm groups for interpretation
5. Do Low-g TasksYield Highly g-Loaded Life Tests? What matters: • Consistency of g loadings • Consistency of g relative to other influences • Candidates for other consistent influences? • Conscientiousness and other “Big Five” traits • Physical health and energy level • Socioeconomic advantages/disadvantages
g Loadings of Test Items S M T W T F S
6. What (Re)Shapes Each Generation’s Test Battery? Changes in: • Complexity • Technology • Size of groups/institutions • Personal freedom/choice • Norms, mores • Other
g-Related Relative Risk Varies by Kind of Outcome Complex Cumulative Simple Episodic
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