The contribution of small scale poultry production projects to sustainable rural livelihoods in Mkhwanazi Traditional Area. SR Mhlongo University of Zululand Department of Agriculture
Introduction • In South Africa 72% of the population are classified as poor and living in rural areas (Ramklaas, 1999). • Poverty is a common phenomenon amongst rural households in Kwa-Zulu Natal. • De Beer and Swanepoel (2000) states the causes of poverty as physical weakness, inability to cultivate large areas, low wages.
Moreki (1997) states that poor households can improve food self-sufficiency if their income and employment opportunity are increased. • Small-scale poultry production has the potential to stimulate the socio-economic growth of resource poor households ( Moreki, 1997). • Community poultry projects has potential to enhance household food security and contribute to poverty reduction through provision of supplementary food, income and employment.
Problem statement • How does poultry production projects contribute socio- economically to sustainable rural livelihood.
Objectives • To analyze the present situation of the broiler production projects. • To describe socio economic status of broiler projects participants. • To describe constraints of small-scale broiler projects. • To investigate profitability of small-scale broiler production projects. • To develop strategies that would improve chances of success of broiler projects.
Research Questions • What is the structure of small-scale broiler production projects? • What is the socio economic status of broiler project participants? • What are the constraints experienced by the small-scale broiler projects participants? • What is the profitability of small-scale broiler projects? • What strategies can improve the success of broiler projects?
Operational definitions • Small-scale is the process of raising up to 500day old chicks per cycle to marketing stage. • Poultry production is the process of raising chickens. • Project is an enterprise carefully planed to achieve a particular aim. • Sustainable livelihood is when a livelihood can cope with and recover from stress and shocks and maintain and enhance its capabilities and assets not undermining natural resource base. Rural refers to a geographical area away from large urban settlements and towns, which is inhabited by rural people
Significance of the study • There are a number of community groups and individuals that are engaged in poultry production projects, especially broiler projects. This research will focus on finding out how many projects are functioning, their socio economic status, profitability, constraints and strategies that can be employed to improve success of broiler projects.
Literature Review Poverty in rural areas is associated with agricultural polices, which persistently marginalsed small-scale black farmers as their access to resources such as land, credit, and technical know-how was curtailed. Increasing theproductio of small-scale farmers will improve the availability and nutritional content of food, and enhance food security generally among the poor (Agric policy, 1998).
Image of agriculture among youth • Amongst the Black youth there is little interest in considering a professional career in agriculture. This is due to lack of awareness about scope and opportunities in the agricultural field, including a lack of awareness around the economic diversity of agricultural enterprise (Agriculture youth, 1998)
Poultry projects • Rural development projects depend on collective action. The action is complex due to incomplete knowledge of both technical and human aspect of project including uncertainty on which individuals can be trusted to cooperate for collective action. • Poultry are kept in rural areas for consumption and marketing.
Sustainable livelihood • Hamilton-Peach $Townsley, 2004 described sustainable livelihood approach as a way to improve understanding of livelihoods of poor people. • Capital assets Poverty is strongly associated with lack of assets, or inability to put assets to productive use. Capital assets are human ,physical, financial, social and natural capital (Scoones, 1998).
Livelihood strategies employed by households includes the following income generating activities: agriculture, self employment, legal claims against state and employers (Wilkins, 1998). • Livelihood outcomes gained are the following increased well being, improved food security, more sustainable use of natural resources and increased income (Carney, 1998).
Community poultry projects • The groups involved in community projects are resource poor farmers which need motivation because they are central to the success of the project. They have a meaningful role and their knowledge should be utilized for them to view the projects as theirs. This approach will contribute to sustainability of the project (FAO, 1995).
Research design • A combination of qualitative and quantitative designs will be used because they compliment each other.
Population and sample • The Mkhwanazi Traditional area is composed of large population. • The sample will be individuals and community groups involved in broiler production projects. • Sampling of projects will be done after completing situation analysis.
Community groups projects and individuals projects will be sampled using stratified sampling method for inclusion in case study. • The sample for key informants will include the following service providers involved in broiler projects: extension workers, trainers, community workers
Methods of data collection • Structured interview schedule will be used to conduct situation analysis in the study area. Observation sheet will be used to record information on size of broiler house, and material used to build the house. • Key informants interview schedule will be used to collect information from key informants. • On station research will be conducted on University's Poultry unit. • Case study will be conducted to collect data for three production cycles.
Methods of data analysis • Data will be analyzed using codes and computer programs. The computer program to be used will be SPSS.
Limitations of the study • The limitations of the study is that the study area is large and as a result has a large population. Sampling frame is not available so the researcher have to travel a lot to all sections of the area searching for functioning projects. This requires a lot of time and traveling cost will be high.
Study area • The area to be studied is Mkhwanazi Traditional Area in Mhlathuze Local Municipality under Uthungulu District Municipality, Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa. • Mkhwanazi Traditional Area is divided into Mkhwanazi North Traditional Area which I approximately 84 km square and Mkhwanzi South which is approximately 57 km square.
Time scheduling • Literature search Feb –March 2005 • Draft proposal writing April- May 2005 • Design of data collection instrument May – June 2005 • Situation analysis June- July 2005 • Data collection three cycles: • July/August , September/ October and November/December.
Preliminary results • The preliminary results from situation analysis about broiler projects in the study area are as follows: • There are 32 functioning projects in the area, 14 individual projects and 17 group projects. • In 5 projects individuals buying mature chickens or ready to sell chickens and • In another 5 projects individuals are buying chickens from two to five weeks and raise them before they start selling them.
In 4 projects individuals are raising day old chicks to maturity. • In one project individual is raising day old chickens and also buying mature chickens ready to be sold.
In 13 projects groups are involved in raising day old chicks to maturity. • In 2 projects groups are involved in buying and selling mature chickens. • In 2 projects groups are involved in buying mature chickens and raising day old chicks.