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V Terms

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V Terms

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  1. V Terms

  2. What’s the Term? #1) The major Indian caste grouping that was originally defined as farmers but eventually included merchants.

  3. Vaisya #1) The major Indian caste grouping that was originally defined as farmers but eventually included merchants.

  4. What’s the Term? #2) Another name for the four strata, or groups, into which Indian society was divided under the caste system. People belonged to one of four varna as a result of their birth.

  5. varna #2) Another name for the four strata, or groups, into which Indian society was divided under the caste system. People belonged to one of four varna as a result of their birth.

  6. What’s the Term? #3) A system of obligations, rights, and duties a free person (or institution) owed to the individual or entity upon which he (or it) was dependent. Rulers of the Zhou dynasty in China (1050-256 B.C.E.) employed relatives and trusted subordinates, or vassals, to supervise conquered territories. Vassalage developed in ninth-century Europe in response to a lack of central authority; as power increasingly fell into the hands of local lords, these lords required vassals to defend them.

  7. vassalage #3) A system of obligations, rights, and duties a free person (or institution) owed to the individual or entity upon which he (or it) was dependent. Rulers of the Zhou dynasty in China (1050-256 B.C.E.) employed relatives and trusted subordinates, or vassals, to supervise conquered territories. Vassalage developed in ninth-century Europe in response to a lack of central authority; as power increasingly fell into the hands of local lords, these lords required vassals to defend them.

  8. What’s the Term? #4) Early collections of Indian hymns, songs, and prayers that contain sacred knowledge and were initially preserved in oral form. They were recorded in writing around 600 B.C.E.

  9. Vedas #4) Early collections of Indian hymns, songs, and prayers that contain sacred knowledge and were initially preserved in oral form. They were recorded in writing around 600 B.C.E.

  10. What’s the Term? #5) The 1989 ousting of Czechoslovakian Communist bosses in only ten days. It grew out of popular demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and a dissent playwright, Vaclav Havel (b. 1936), who was then elected as president.

  11. Velvet Revolution #5) The 1989 ousting of Czechoslovakian Communist bosses in only ten days. It grew out of popular demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and a dissent playwright, Vaclav Havel (b. 1936), who was then elected as president.

  12. What’s the Term? #6) A Paleolithic carving of the female form, often with exaggerated breasts, buttocks, hips, and stomach, which may have had religious significance. Some scholars believe the prevalence of Venus figurines indicated that the religious beliefs of Paleolithic peoples had a strongly feminine dimension.

  13. Venus figurine #6) A Paleolithic carving of the female form, often with exaggerated breasts, buttocks, hips, and stomach, which may have had religious significance. Some scholars believe the prevalence of Venus figurines indicated that the religious beliefs of Paleolithic peoples had a strongly feminine dimension.

  14. What’s the Term? #7) The language spoken by ordinary people as opposed to a written, scholarly language. Vernacular literature began to flourish in fourteenth-century Europe (replacing works published in Latin) and sixteenth-century China and included short stories, novels, plays, and poetry.

  15. Vernacular language #7) The language spoken by ordinary people as opposed to a written, scholarly language. Vernacular literature began to flourish in fourteenth-century Europe (replacing works published in Latin) and sixteenth-century China and included short stories, novels, plays, and poetry.

  16. What’s the Term? #8) The Andean system of planting and grazing at different altitudes. Terraces up the mountainside were shored up with earthen walls to retain moisture and enabled the growing of many types of potatoes.

  17. Vertical archipelago #8) The Andean system of planting and grazing at different altitudes. Terraces up the mountainside were shored up with earthen walls to retain moisture and enabled the growing of many types of potatoes.

  18. What’s the Term? #9) The four administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata. Each was ruled by a viceroy in the name of the king and had its own court, or audiencia.

  19. viceroyalty #9) The four administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata. Each was ruled by a viceroy in the name of the king and had its own court, or audiencia.

  20. What’s the Term? #10) The caliph’s chief assistant who advised him on matters of general policy, supervised the bureaucratic administration, and oversaw the army, the provincial governors, and relationships with foreign governments. The Abbasids, who acquired power over the Islamic territories in 750, borrowed the idea from the Persians.

  21. vizier #10) The caliph’s chief assistant who advised him on matters of general policy, supervised the bureaucratic administration, and oversaw the army, the provincial governors, and relationships with foreign governments. The Abbasids, who acquired power over the Islamic territories in 750, borrowed the idea from the Persians.