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Citations and bibliographies. Learning Resource Centre Information Skills tutorial. Before you begin…. This presentation is intended to be a basic guide only Please check your School’s policy on referencing – you should find this in your Student handbook Or consult your tutor.

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Citations and bibliographies

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    1. Citations and bibliographies Learning Resource Centre Information Skills tutorial Information Services

    2. Before you begin… • This presentation is intended to be a basic guide only • Please check your School’s policy on referencing – you should find this in your Student handbook • Or consult your tutor

    3. Why reference? • to support an argument or claim you are making • to acknowledge other peoples’ ideas or work • to show evidence of the breadth and depth of your own reading • to avoid being accused of plagiarism

    4. Citations • referring to other people’s work in your own work is known as “citing” • a list is given at the end of your work, of all the items you refer to • the citations should contain sufficient information for someone else to be able to trace the item

    5. Citations • keep a careful record of all the items you read as you read them • take the details from the title page or reverse, not the front cover • if you keep the list on a computer you can keep it in alphabetical order • this is known as a bibliography

    6. Reference lists v bibliographies • a reference list is a list of all the items you have mentioned in your essay or work - in alphabetical order • a bibliography is a complete list of all the above PLUS everything you have read around the subject that has helped you to write your essay or work

    7. Bibliographies • use the Harvard referencing system! • links on Google • – enter Harvard referencing and click UK only

    8. Books – single author • McCavity, Phil (1980): Dentistry today. London, Association of Dentists.

    9. Books – two authors • Bull, J and M Gate (1989): Breeding dairy cows. London, United Farming Press.

    10. Books – 3 or more authors • Builder, Bob, et al (1993): Construction practice. London, Town House Publications. • et al means “and others” in Latin • your tutor may prefer you to list ALL the authors instead – check first

    11. Corporate authors • Put the name of the organisation as the author: • Institute of Waste Management (1995): Ways to improve recycling. Northampton, Institute of Waste Management.

    12. Books - editors • Beanstalk, Jack (ed.) (1986): Success with vegetables. Oxford, Giant Co.

    13. 2 authors from the same year • Put the titles in alphabetical order and call the references a, b, c, etc. • Brett, P. (2002a): Bench joinery. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes. • Brett, P. (2002b): Site carpentry and joinery level 2. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes.

    14. A chapter/article within a book • Ewbank, R (1999): “Animal welfare”, in Management and welfare of farm animals. 4th ed, Wheathampstead, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, p.1-15. • for page numbers, use p.25, pp.94-191 or :94-191 or ,94-191

    15. Journal articles • put the title of the article in “quotes” • put the name of the Journal in italics • Shaw, Philip (2005): “Estimating local extinction rates over successive time-frames”, Biological Conservation, 121 (2), 281-7.

    16. Newspaper articles • same as journal articles • but if there is no author (e.g. a short news item) use the Newspaper name as a corporate author • Guardian, The (2005): “Guardian appeal tops £1.5m”. The Guardian. 19 January 2005, p.2.

    17. A thesis or dissertation • similar to a book reference - • Brown, Michael (1980): The problems of making and maintaining a medieval style garden today. M.A. Thesis, Birkbeck.

    18. Reports • similar to a book reference: • Curry, Donald (2002): Farming and food: A sustainable future: Report of the policy commission on the future of food and farming. London, Cabinet Office.

    19. British Standards • British Standards Institute (1984): Nursery stock – Part 4: Specification for forest trees. BS3936-4. London: BSI.

    20. Government publication • Similar to a corporate author reference: • Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2004): Improving lamb survival. London, DEFRA.

    21. CD-ROM • The Keyskill Company (1999): Vetlogic: The skeletal system. [CD ROM] Stroud, The Keyskill Company.

    22. WWW document • (1998-2005): English Foxhound. [Online] Available from [Accessed 27 January 2005].

    23. Other types of material... • legislation • Patents • unpublished material (grey literature) • electronic material • videos, films • e-journals…. • etc etc

    24. References and citations within your work • White and Gilbert say “Using a detailed soil strategy is an essential part of the habitat creation planning process” (White and Gilbert, 2003, p.55). • OR: White and Gilbert (2003) point out that a soil strategy is a necessary part of planning. • Use 3 dots … for a word/part of a word within a direct quote to show where you are missing out sections/words of the quote (4 dots …. If the omission includes a full stop).

    25. Citing references to resources you have not actually seen • state in your text that Colin Smith (Gibbs and Carroll, 1978, p.7) says “…….” • put the Gibbs and Carroll book and page number(s) in your bibliography

    26. If you can’t find the details • author not given [anon] • no place (sine loco) [s.l.] • no publisher (sine nomine) [s.n.] • no date [n.d.] • not known [n.k.]

    27. With thanks to….. • Learning Resources Services, UCN (2003): Referencing guide questions and answers - the Harvard system. University of Northampton. [Accessed 8 December 2006]. • The Library, University of Sheffield (2000): Writing a bibliography. [Online] Available from [Accessed 2 September 2005].

    28. Thank you! Learning Resource Centre Information Services