Citations and bibliographies Learning Resource Centre Information Skills tutorial Information Services
Before you begin… • This presentation is intended to be a basic guide only • Please check your School’s policy on referencing – you should find this in your Student handbook • Or consult your tutor
Why reference? • to support an argument or claim you are making • to acknowledge other peoples’ ideas or work • to show evidence of the breadth and depth of your own reading • to avoid being accused of plagiarism
Citations • referring to other people’s work in your own work is known as “citing” • a list is given at the end of your work, of all the items you refer to • the citations should contain sufficient information for someone else to be able to trace the item
Citations • keep a careful record of all the items you read as you read them • take the details from the title page or reverse, not the front cover • if you keep the list on a computer you can keep it in alphabetical order • this is known as a bibliography
Reference lists v bibliographies • a reference list is a list of all the items you have mentioned in your essay or work - in alphabetical order • a bibliography is a complete list of all the above PLUS everything you have read around the subject that has helped you to write your essay or work
Bibliographies • use the Harvard referencing system! • links on Google • www.google.com – enter Harvard referencing and click UK only
Books – single author • McCavity, Phil (1980): Dentistry today. London, Association of Dentists.
Books – two authors • Bull, J and M Gate (1989): Breeding dairy cows. London, United Farming Press.
Books – 3 or more authors • Builder, Bob, et al (1993): Construction practice. London, Town House Publications. • et al means “and others” in Latin • your tutor may prefer you to list ALL the authors instead – check first
Corporate authors • Put the name of the organisation as the author: • Institute of Waste Management (1995): Ways to improve recycling. Northampton, Institute of Waste Management.
Books - editors • Beanstalk, Jack (ed.) (1986): Success with vegetables. Oxford, Giant Co.
2 authors from the same year • Put the titles in alphabetical order and call the references a, b, c, etc. • Brett, P. (2002a): Bench joinery. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes. • Brett, P. (2002b): Site carpentry and joinery level 2. Cheltenham, Stanley Thornes.
A chapter/article within a book • Ewbank, R (1999): “Animal welfare”, in Management and welfare of farm animals. 4th ed, Wheathampstead, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, p.1-15. • for page numbers, use p.25, pp.94-191 or :94-191 or ,94-191
Journal articles • put the title of the article in “quotes” • put the name of the Journal in italics • Shaw, Philip (2005): “Estimating local extinction rates over successive time-frames”, Biological Conservation, 121 (2), 281-7.
Newspaper articles • same as journal articles • but if there is no author (e.g. a short news item) use the Newspaper name as a corporate author • Guardian, The (2005): “Guardian appeal tops £1.5m”. The Guardian. 19 January 2005, p.2.
A thesis or dissertation • similar to a book reference - • Brown, Michael (1980): The problems of making and maintaining a medieval style garden today. M.A. Thesis, Birkbeck.
Reports • similar to a book reference: • Curry, Donald (2002): Farming and food: A sustainable future: Report of the policy commission on the future of food and farming. London, Cabinet Office.
British Standards • British Standards Institute (1984): Nursery stock – Part 4: Specification for forest trees. BS3936-4. London: BSI.
Government publication • Similar to a corporate author reference: • Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (2004): Improving lamb survival. London, DEFRA.
CD-ROM • The Keyskill Company (1999): Vetlogic: The skeletal system. [CD ROM] Stroud, The Keyskill Company.
WWW document • Dogbreedinfo.com (1998-2005): English Foxhound. [Online] Available from http://www.dogbreedinfo.com/englishfoxhound.htm [Accessed 27 January 2005].
Other types of material... • legislation • Patents • unpublished material (grey literature) • electronic material • videos, films • e-journals…. • etc etc
References and citations within your work • White and Gilbert say “Using a detailed soil strategy is an essential part of the habitat creation planning process” (White and Gilbert, 2003, p.55). • OR: White and Gilbert (2003) point out that a soil strategy is a necessary part of planning. • Use 3 dots … for a word/part of a word within a direct quote to show where you are missing out sections/words of the quote (4 dots …. If the omission includes a full stop).
Citing references to resources you have not actually seen • state in your text that Colin Smith (Gibbs and Carroll, 1978, p.7) says “…….” • put the Gibbs and Carroll book and page number(s) in your bibliography
If you can’t find the details • author not given [anon] • no place (sine loco) [s.l.] • no publisher (sine nomine) [s.n.] • no date [n.d.] • not known [n.k.]
With thanks to….. • Learning Resources Services, UCN (2003): Referencing guide questions and answers - the Harvard system. University of Northampton. http://library.northampton.ac.uk/subjects/subject.php?sid=28&pid=1 [Accessed 8 December 2006]. • The Library, University of Sheffield (2000): Writing a bibliography. [Online] Available from www.shef.ac.uk/library/libdocs/hsl-dvc1.pdf [Accessed 2 September 2005].
Thank you! Learning Resource Centre Information Services